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Hello, Everyone!

Hello, Everyone!. Part I. Review . Review Questions. 1 . How are English consonants classified? 2 . How are English Vowels classified?. Part II. New Content. Chapter 3. Morphology. 3.1. Morphology . 3.1.1 Open class and closed class.

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Hello, Everyone!

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  1. Hello, Everyone!

  2. Part I Review

  3. Review Questions • 1. How are English consonants classified? • 2. How are English Vowels classified?

  4. Part II New Content

  5. Chapter 3 Morphology

  6. 3.1 Morphology

  7. 3.1.1 Open class and closed class • 1.Open class words: or content words, to which new words can be regularly added • Nouns, verbs, adjectives , adverbs • 2. Closed class words: or “grammatical” or “functional”words, to which new words are not usually added • Conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns

  8. 3.1.2 Internal structure of words and rules for word formation • 1.Internal structure • Disapprove = dis + approve • 2.Rules for word formation • Disapprove approvedis

  9. Definition • Morphology: the study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed.

  10. 3.2 Morphemes

  11. 1. Definition • The most basic element of meaning is traditionally called morpheme. • The smallest meaningful element of language that cannot be reduced to smaller elements. (Bussmann 1996: 313)

  12. 2. Types of morphemes • 1. Affix: Collective term for bound formatives or word-forming elements that constitute subcategories of word classes. Affixes are classified according to their placement on the stem.

  13. Types of morphemes • 2. Prefix: Morphemes that occur only before other morphemes. (Bound morphemes that precede the stem.) • 3. Suffix: Morphemes that only occur after other morphemes.(Bound morphemes that are attached finally to free morpheme constructions)

  14. Types of morphemes • 4. Bound morpheme: Morphemes that cannot occur “unattached”, but always as parts of words. • 5. Free morpheme: Morphemes that can constitute words by themselves. • 6. Stem: Morphemes or morpheme constructions on which inflectional endings can appear

  15. 3.3 Derivational and inflectional morphemes • 1. Derivational morpheme: Bound morpheme which change the category or grammatical class of words. • 2. Inflectional morphemes: Bound morphemes which are for the most part purely grammatical markers, signifying such concepts as tense, number, case and so on. • 3. Stem: Morphemes or morpheme constructions on which inflectional endings can appear

  16. 3.4 Morphological rules of word formation • Morphological rules: ways words are formed • Un + ADJECTIVE = not– ADJECTIVE • Acceptable – unacceptable • Sad –unsad • Productive/less productive

  17. 3.5 Compounds compounds: or compound words, words formed by stringing words together rainbow, pickpocket a. grammatical category b. stress c. meaning

  18. complementary Contrast between Chinese and English word formation

  19. 1. 汉语偏旁部首Vs英语黏着词素

  20. anthrop(o) man 人,人类 • Anthropology 人类学 anthropocentric • anthropotomy • philanthropist

  21. 1. His philanthropic attitude was widely endorsed(认可). • philanthropic: 慈善的,博爱的 • 2. Evolutionists hold that anthropoid is a stage from which human has developed. • anthropoid 类人猿 • 3.The subject of anthropology can be generally divided into two branches: cultural anthropology and physical (体质) anthropology.

  22. 汉语 1. 形声法 形符 + 声符 义类 + 读音 例:湖、铀 2. 会意法 例:安好家 英语 1. 合成:词+词+…… playboy forget-me-not warmhearted 2. 派生:前缀+词根+ 后缀 unfriendly, receive hydrograph 2. 形声与会意Vs合成与派生

  23. 3. 词素分析与词汇学习 • 1. 从结构上加以解剖 preposterous pre-poster-ous 反常的、愚蠢的 2. 从形、音上与熟单词挂钩 depict de-pict (picture) 3. 从词族上加以扩展 defer, confer, differ, infer, offer, proffer 4. 从单词的译文上加以对比 multilateral synchronous 多 边的同 时 的

  24. Homework • 1. Review. • 2. Prepare L 16 • Review exercises (P40) • Prepare Chapter 5


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