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Hello, Everyone!. Part I. Review . Review Questions. 1 . How are English consonants classified? 2 . How are English Vowels classified?. Part II. New Content. Chapter 3. Morphology. 3.1. Morphology . 3.1.1 Open class and closed class.
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Part I Review
Review Questions • 1. How are English consonants classified? • 2. How are English Vowels classified?
Part II New Content
Chapter 3 Morphology
3.1.1 Open class and closed class • 1.Open class words: or content words, to which new words can be regularly added • Nouns, verbs, adjectives , adverbs • 2. Closed class words: or “grammatical” or “functional”words, to which new words are not usually added • Conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns
3.1.2 Internal structure of words and rules for word formation • 1.Internal structure • Disapprove = dis + approve • 2.Rules for word formation • Disapprove approvedis
Definition • Morphology: the study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed.
1. Definition • The most basic element of meaning is traditionally called morpheme. • The smallest meaningful element of language that cannot be reduced to smaller elements. (Bussmann 1996: 313)
2. Types of morphemes • 1. Affix: Collective term for bound formatives or word-forming elements that constitute subcategories of word classes. Affixes are classified according to their placement on the stem.
Types of morphemes • 2. Prefix: Morphemes that occur only before other morphemes. (Bound morphemes that precede the stem.) • 3. Suffix: Morphemes that only occur after other morphemes.(Bound morphemes that are attached finally to free morpheme constructions)
Types of morphemes • 4. Bound morpheme: Morphemes that cannot occur “unattached”, but always as parts of words. • 5. Free morpheme: Morphemes that can constitute words by themselves. • 6. Stem: Morphemes or morpheme constructions on which inflectional endings can appear
3.3 Derivational and inflectional morphemes • 1. Derivational morpheme: Bound morpheme which change the category or grammatical class of words. • 2. Inflectional morphemes: Bound morphemes which are for the most part purely grammatical markers, signifying such concepts as tense, number, case and so on. • 3. Stem: Morphemes or morpheme constructions on which inflectional endings can appear
3.4 Morphological rules of word formation • Morphological rules: ways words are formed • Un + ADJECTIVE = not– ADJECTIVE • Acceptable – unacceptable • Sad –unsad • Productive/less productive
3.5 Compounds compounds: or compound words, words formed by stringing words together rainbow, pickpocket a. grammatical category b. stress c. meaning
complementary Contrast between Chinese and English word formation
anthrop(o) man 人，人类 • Anthropology 人类学 anthropocentric • anthropotomy • philanthropist
1. His philanthropic attitude was widely endorsed（认可）. • philanthropic: 慈善的，博爱的 • 2. Evolutionists hold that anthropoid is a stage from which human has developed. • anthropoid 类人猿 • 3.The subject of anthropology can be generally divided into two branches: cultural anthropology and physical (体质) anthropology.
汉语 1. 形声法 形符 + 声符 义类 + 读音 例：湖、铀 2. 会意法 例：安好家 英语 1. 合成：词+词+…… playboy forget-me-not warmhearted 2. 派生：前缀+词根+ 后缀 unfriendly, receive hydrograph 2. 形声与会意Vs合成与派生
3. 词素分析与词汇学习 • 1. 从结构上加以解剖 preposterous pre-poster-ous 反常的、愚蠢的 2. 从形、音上与熟单词挂钩 depict de-pict (picture) 3. 从词族上加以扩展 defer, confer, differ, infer, offer, proffer 4. 从单词的译文上加以对比 multilateral synchronous 多 边的同 时 的
Homework • 1. Review. • 2. Prepare L 16 • Review exercises (P40) • Prepare Chapter 5