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  1. FIU Solar House’s Potential Performance: A Study of Natural Ventilation Strategies Cheng-Xian Lin and Long Phan Florida International University Miami, FL 33174

  2. FIU at u.s. Solar decathlon 2005 • 10 Contests • Architecture • Dwelling • Documentation • Communications • Comfort Zone • Appliances • Hot Water • Lighting • Energy Balance1 • Getting Around An overview of the house Modular construction • At a glance • Name: Engawa • Constructed by modules • 1/3 glass • PV-integrated windows (projection surface) • Overall standing 13/18 FIU Solar House’s demonstration The house exhibition 1 All credits to DOE Solar Decathlon (www.solardecathlon.gov) & FIU solardecathlon (http://gsl.eng.fiu.edu/webs/SOLAR2004/)

  3. FIU at u.s. solar decathlon 2011 • 10 Contests • Architecture • Market Appeal • Engineering • Communications • Affordability • Comfort Zone • Hot Water • Appliances • Entertainment • Energy Balance1 Visitors at the exhibition in Washington D.C. Aerial view Overview of the house model • At a glance • Name: perFORM[D]ance • Modular design • Open pavillion • Operable louvers/shade • Overall standing: 11/22 Rooftop solar panels Exterior & interior 2 Top view of the house model All credits to DOE Solar Decathlon (www.solardecathlon.gov) & FIU solardecathlon (www.solardecathlon.fiu.edu)

  4. Fiu at solar decathlon china 2013 • 10 Contests • Architecture • Market Appeal • Engineering • Communications • Solar Application3 • Comfort Zone1 • Hot Water1 • Appliances • Entertainment • Energy Balance1 Overview of the house model • At a glance • Name: O-house • Modular house • PV louvers • Traditional courtyard • Overall standing: 5/22 Rooftop solar panels Interior 3 3 All credits to Solar Decathlon China (http://www.sdchina.org/) & FIU-Tsinghua team(http://www.thfisdc.com/)

  5. CURRENT activities in solar house 2005 • Public Exhibition and Educational Activities • Outreach: Annual Engineering Expo, Engineers on Wheel • Visiting by students: undergraduate and K-12 • Lab tours • Student Projects • Senior design projects • Course projects • Exchange student studies • Elise Belleil, EI. CESI, France, Summer 2013 • Francisco Zevallos, Loughborough/Northumbria University, UK, Fall 2013 • Research Projects • Real time temperature and humidity monitoring • PV/T technology demonstration • Building energy simulation model validation 4

  6. The study of the 2005 solar house modelStudents: Elise Belleil and Long Phan • The Solar House Model • 34’4” x 25’4” x 15’4” • 7 typical residential spaces • Total conditioned area 721.15 ft2 • Window-to-wallratio is 45.8 % • Rooftop PV panels with tilted angle of 75o 5 Floor plan of the house

  7. Motivations • The benefits of natural ventilation strategies • The limitations and remedies of energy utilization in hot and humid climates • The aid of building energy simulation program providing insights for different strategies • Comparisons of a few natural ventilation strategies to seek the most possible solution in terms of thermal comfort and energy reduction Objectives 7

  8. Physical model Wall and window areas in different surfaces Typical rooms of the solar house The 2005 solar house model 8

  9. Building Energy simulation model Energy Balance Equation for a room model Net Zone Load System Load Equation Simulation Code: EnergyPlus 9

  10. Boundary conditions & materials Miami, FL climate graph 10

  11. Natural ventilation methods (b) (a) Natural ventilation methods Thermal chimney (TC) Earth tube (ET) Cool tower (CT) Opening 11 (d) (c)

  12. Single method results (a) Annual energy consumption (b) Total uncomfortable days Comparison among various natural ventilation systems 12

  13. Hybrid method results Hybrid system schedule Comparison among various hybrid cooling systems (a) Annual energy consumption (b) Total uncomfortable days 13

  14. Systems comparison Comparison among all cooling systems 14

  15. Thermal zones comparison Temperature profile of 7 thermal zones at different cooling strategies 15

  16. conclusion • Various natural ventilation strategies including earth tube, thermal chimney, wind tower, and opening, as well as hybrid strategies are investigated. • Relying on only natural ventilation could cause a dramatic impact to the human thermal comfort. • Hybrid systems have revealed the significant reduction in cooling energy consumption while complying with the minimum requirements for thermal comfort recommended by ASHRAE standards. • Combined thermal chimney and mechanical system (HVAC) method shows relatively better potentials for hot and humid climate such as Miami. 16

  17. THANK YOU !