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Developing a Disaster-Preparedness Training Program for Food Service Personnel. Karen M. Ensle EdD, RD, FADA, CFCS Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Union County 300 North Ave East, Westfield, NJ 07090 firstname.lastname@example.org. Planning for Emergencies.
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Developing a Disaster-Preparedness Training Program for Food Service Personnel Karen M. Ensle EdD, RD, FADA, CFCS Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Union County 300 North Ave East, Westfield, NJ 07090 email@example.com
Planning for Emergencies • Use an exercise tool kit for your employees • Provides emergency drill information • Provides checklists and planning info from start of emergency through clean-up
Exercise Cycle & Organization • Employee orientation to inform using practical exercises including drills. • Periodic updates and new employee training. • Use lectures, videos, slides, panels, case studies, role play. • All employees need to know what to do in a particular emergency.
Operations Based Exercises • Drills—tests response time, need for training, operations procedures, safety & can be planned or spontaneous. • Functional exercises- tests system for capability over time in simulated scenarios • Full-Scale exercise- test & evaluate the plan over time; full-mock simulation with all involved-victims and staff.
The Planning Team • Emergency Planning Coordinator (Manager RD or FSD) • Operations Team includes principal, teachers and other health-care staff that integrate with food services • Planning group includes coordinator, operations team and department members that choose scenarios or practice activities • Logistics Team– decide when and what activities • Finance Team – costs of simulations/activities and training.
Developing Steps in the Plan • Research & develop a discussion based exercise that is important for your facility. • Draft scenario components. • Create problem statements & messages. • Finalize the scenario. • Pilot test with small group before using with entire food service operation.
Developing the Evaluation Plan • Consider pre-exercise activities. • Review scenarios; all components and staff activities. • Evaluate the emergency response plan and activity results • Did the plan match the activity?? Were objectives met? • Adjust where necessary— • Was timing OK? • Instructions clear? • Supplies wasted? • Did participants and external observers evaluate activity positively? • How was communication within your organization? Inside? To the outside?
The Suite of 15 National Planning Scenarios a. General description b. Planning considerations • Geographical considerations/description • Timeline/events dynamics • Meteorological conditions (when applicable) • Assumptions • Mission areas activated c. Implications • Secondary hazards/events • Fatalities/injuries • Property damage • Service disruption • Economic impact • Long-term health issues
Scenario Overview a.Prevention/deterrence b. Infrastructure protection c. Preparedness d. Emergency assessment/diagnosis e. Emergency management/response f. Hazard mitigation g. Evacuation/shelter h. Victim care i. Investigation/apprehension j. Recovery/remediation
15 Types of Emergencies Scenario 1: Nuclear Detonation Scenario 2: Biological Attack–Aerosol/Anthrax Scenario 3: Biological Disease Outbreak– Pandemic Influenza Scenario 4: Biological Attack–Plague Scenario 5: Chemical Attack–Blister Agent Scenario 6: Chemical Attack–Toxic Industrial Chemicals Scenario 7: Chemical Attack–Nerve Agent
Scenario 8: Chemical Attack–Chlorine Tank Explosion Scenario 9: Natural Disaster–Major Earthquake Scenario 10: Natural Disaster–Major Hurricane Scenario 11: Radiological Attack– Radiological Dispersal Devices Scenario 12: Explosives Attack–Bombing Using Improvised Explosive Devices Scenario 13: Biological Attack–Food Contamination Scenario 14: Biological Attack–Foreign Animal Disease (Foot and Mouth Disease) Scenario 15: Cyber Attack
Emergency Readiness:School Food Service Karen M. Ensle EdD, RD, FADA, CFCS Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Union County 300 North Ave East, Westfield, NJ 07090
What is a Crisis? A sudden critical situation that creates an intense emotional impact on a person. Three Levels of Crisis: • Level 1 -personal tragedy or threatening incident that effects the school. • Level 2 -more serious crisis of personal tragedy, threatening incident off school property that effects students. • Level 3 -major crisis involving disaster or terrorism in one or more schools.
Who Is In Charge? • Principal ---Crisis effecting one building • Superintendent of Schools---Crisis is effecting more than one building or the District
Code Warning System • CODE BLUE • CODE RED • SHELTER – IN - PLACE Crisis “Quick Cards” with key points of directions for operating in a crisis will be posted in the school building.
CODE BLUE • Crisis Team Reports to Designated Area • Students/Staff Remain in Classrooms, Food Service in Kitchen • All Bells Turned Off • Attendance Taken • Await Further Instruction from Administrator
CODE RED • Crisis Team Reports to Designated Area • Students/Staff Remain in Classrooms, Food Service in Kitchen • Bells Turned Off; Classrooms Locked • Custodians Lock Outside Doors • Windows Closed/Locked/Shades Pulled • Staff/Students on Floor Along Interior Wall • Attendance Recorded/List Those Missing • Wait for Further Instruction from Administrator • A “Lockdown” means secure all interior doors to when safe to do so. Exterior doors are secured ONLY when safe to do so.
CODE REDINTRUDER IN BUILDING • Students/staff move away from building to designated off-campus site • Two-way radio will allow Administrator or Designee to Announce Code Red to Adult Supervisors
CODE REDINTRUDER OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • Students, staff outside the building for recess, lunch or gym class Go INTO the school and the nearest classroom that is secure. • If the situation does not permit entry into the building, • Move away from the threat • Go to off-campus location and report their location by 2-way radio to administrator
SHELTER – IN - PLACE • Crisis Team Reports to Designated Area • Outside Doors Locked, Code Sign Taped to Front Door, All Windows Closed • All Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning Shut Off • Remain in Classrooms/Office/Kitchen • Bells Turned Off • Attendance Recorded/List Those Missing • Wait for Further Instruction from Administrator
Step One • FSD Determines Tasks for All Personnel • Develop a Contact Directory • Know the Chain of Command • Emergency Response Team Coordinators-Cook Managers • Delegation of Tasks to Food Service Staff
Chain of Command • Identify Emergency Response Team Coordinators • Create Contact List Who initiates list for your school? Who will you need to contact? How will you organize yourself? Everyone in School Food Service needs to be part of the Chain
Step Two • Identify Disruptions That May Stop Food Service Operations • Determine Alternate Procedures • Remember Food Safety Concerns • Remember Standard Operating Procedures • Menus
Utility & Community Emergency Contacts • Electric Company Contact? • Gas Company Contact? • Water Company Contact? • Sanitation & Sewage Contact?
Message Carriers • Remember telephones, e-mail, fax, cell phones and computers MAY NOT WORK! • Identify persons to be message carriers for food service operations: • Parents • Volunteer organizations • Bus Drivers
Local Food SourcesEmergency Contacts • How Will They Get Paid? • Cash on Delivery? • Purchase Order? • Charge? • Donation? • Identify: • Food Companies • Local Restaurants • Local Grocery Stores
Local Beverage SuppliersEmergency Contacts • How Will They Get Paid? • Cash on Delivery? • Purchase Order? • Charge? • Donation? • Identify: • Local Beverage Companies • Local Dairies • Local Restaurants • Local Grocery Stores
Local Cleaning & Chemical SuppliesEmergency Contacts • How Will They Get Paid? • Cash on Delivery? • Purchase Order? • Charge? • Donation? • Identify: • Vendors • Local Restaurants • Local Grocery Stores
Step Three Develop A Well-Designed Food Service Emergency Readiness Plan • How will you organize your staff? • Who turns off the hoods, gas, etc? • Who takes food inventory? • Where is your water, milk, pop tarts, other foods set for emergency situations?
Emergency Inventory • Do you have a 3-day Emergency Inventory with matching menus? • How many “child meals”, “adult meals” do you need to prepare? • Do you have these beverages on your list?Bottled water, coffee, fruit drink, canned juice, lemonade, milk, tea? • Meat & alternates available? Canned beef, chicken, tuna, turkey, beans-(red,pinto,black), American cheese, shredded mozzarella, dry lentils, eggs, peanut butter, canned entrees
Groceries Available?Canned soups, fruit, vegetables, powdered/shelf-stable milk, pasta, spaghetti sauce • Condiments Available?Non-dairy creamer, jelly, mustard, ketchup, mayonnaise, mustard, sugar & substitute • Paper Supplies Available?Aluminum foil, plastic wrap, disposable pans, bowls, cups, forks, gloves, knives, spoons, napkins, paper towels, tissues, toilet paper, trash bags • Chemical Supplies Available?Alcohol swabs, bleach, detergent for floors, counters, dish detergent, sanitizer, hand soap
Miscellaneous Supplies Available?First Aid Kit, Batteries, Flashlights, Manual Can Opener How Much Do You Have on Hand? How Much Do You Need to Order for Emergency Readiness?
Standard Operating ProceduresElectric Power Disruption What is your procedure? • To maintain temps, open refrigerators & freezers only when necessary? • Flashlights w/batteries are located? • Keys to food service office are located? • Keys to freezers are located? • Do you have a back-up generator?
Alternate inventory & menus available? • Emergency inventory available? • Manual can opener available? • Can you operate on steam heat? • Can you operate on gas power? • Alternate methods arranged to pay vendors? • Cellular phone numbers available?
Additional freezer, refrigerator space available? • Where is ice available? • Are refrigerated trucks available to hold food? • Is disposable service ware available? • Do you have sheets for recording temps of food, refrigerator & freezer temps, milk cooler? • Actions taken when temps are too low or too high? • Actions taken for food usage and discard?
Standard Operating ProcedureGas Disruption How do you operate without gas? • Who is trained to disconnect the gas? • Where is the alternate inventory and menus? • Facility equipped to operate on steam heat? On electricity? • Where are cell phones located?
Standard Operating ProcedureWater Supply Disruption What will you do if you are without water? • Do you have sufficient bottled water available? • Are alternate menus available? • Do you have disposable serviceware available? • Do you have an ice machine? Where will you get ice if you have no water? • Actions taken when water comes back on? • Actions taken for ice usage and discard? • Who will supply ice? How purchased?
Alternate Resources forWater Supply Disruption Who will supply you with “potable” safe water? • How will you pay? • Cash on Delivery? • Purchase Order? • Charge It? • Donation?
Step Four Teach Components of the Emergency Readiness Plan to All Food Service Staff • Do you have drills? • How & Where do you evacuate to? • Who will contact you that a crisis is occurring? • Does everyone on staff know what they have to do in a crisis situation? • Are you prepared to run a “Shelter-in-Place”?
Three Day Shelter Menu • Use refrigerated/frozen stock on hand first. • If electric is out, check time and only use food supplies that are safe. • Foods that should be available at ALL times: coffee, non-fat dry milk, tea, creamer, crackers, jelly, peanut butter, salt, pepper
Sample Menu for 3 Days • Breakfast (all days): cereal, fruit juice, peanut butter, crackers. • Main Meal (Day 1 & 3): sliced meat sandwich, canned vegetable, canned fruit, peanut butter, crackers. • Main Meal (Day 2): pork & beans, canned vegetable, canned fruit, peanut butter • Evening Meal (all days): tuna salad sandwich, canned fruit, peanut butter • Snack (afternoon & evening) cookies, canned fruit
Step Five Practice Emergency Readiness Drills • When was your last drill? • How often do you have drills? • Who initiates the drills? • What happens if the drill happens during lunch? • Do you watch for teacher directions to students? • What do you do when you are evacuated outside the building? • Have you talked about crisis situations with your staff? Have you assigned them specific duties?
Step Six • Evaluate Emergency Readiness Plan • How Effective is the Plan? • Update as Needed
References: • National Food Service Management Institute (2003). Emergency readiness plan: A guide for the school food service operation. University, MS: National Food Service Management Institute. • Puckett, R.P. & L.C.Norton, (2003). Disaster and emergency preparedness in foodservice operations. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association. • The Elizabeth Public Schools, (2004) Crisis Response Guide, revised ed. Elizabeth, NJ: Elizabeth Board of Education, 500 North Broad Street, Elizabeth, NJ 07207.