The human body
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The HUMAN BODY. Concepts of ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY. ANATOMY. The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other. FORM Other terms include: Shape Structure Appearance. PHYSIOLOGY.

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The human body


Concepts of





  • The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other.

  • FORM

  • Other terms include:

    • Shape

    • Structure

    • Appearance


  • The scientific study of the functioning of specific body parts and systems.


Levels of organization
Levels of Organization

  • Chemical Level

  • Cellular Level

  • Tissue Level

  • Organ Level

  • System Level

  • Organism Level

Chemical level
Chemical Level

  • All chemical substances essential for maintaining life – atoms-compounds-molecules.

  • Major Elements:

    • C - carbon

    • H - hydrogen

    • O - oxygen

    • N – nitrogen

  • Others

    • Na

    • Mg

    • K

    • Ca

    • Etc...

Cellular level
Cellular Level

  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function.

  • Each cell has a unique structure and function.

    • Muscle cells

    • Nerve cells

    • Blood cells

    • Cartilage cells

Tissue level
Tissue Level

  • Collection of similar cells grouped together to perform a specific function.

  • Usually derived from a common embryonic origin.

  • Four Major Tissue Types

    • Connective Tissue

    • Epithelial Tissue

    • Muscular Tissue

    • Nervous Tissue

Organ level
Organ Level

  • Structures composed of two or more different tissues.

  • Have specific functions.

  • Usually have recognizable shapes

    • Heart

    • Brain

    • Kidney

    • Liver

    • And many more...

System level
System Level

  • An association of organs that have a common function.

    • Skeletal System

    • Digestive System

    • Lymphatic System

    • Muscular System

    • Respiratory System

    • Endocrine System

    • Nervous System

    • Circulatory System

    • Reproductive System

Organism level

Organism Level

All body systems are functioning

with one another

as a living individual.



The sum total of all chemical processes that occur in the body

Metabolism refers specifically to the two processes associated with converting nutrients into energy





Using energy to synthesize or manufacture new tissue or molecules.

The breakdown of tissues or chemical structures to produce or generate energy.

Body cavities


Spaces within the body that contain the internal organs.

Dorsal body cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity

  • Cranial Cavity

    • Contains the brain

  • Vertebral Cavity

    • Bony cavity formed by the vertebrae of the spine that contains and protects the spinal cord.

Ventral body cavity
Ventral Body Cavity

  • Thoracic Cavity

    • Pleural cavities (2)

    • Mediastinum

    • Pericardial cavity

      --- Diaphragm ----

  • Abdominopelvic Cavity

    • Abdominal cavity

    • Pelvic cavity

The human body

Characteristicsof life include:

1. Movement (internal or gross)

2. Responsiveness (reaction to internal or external change)

3. Growth (increase in size without change in shape)

4. Reproduction (new organisms or new cells)

5. Respiration (use of oxygen; removal of CO2)

The human body

6. Digestion (breakdown of food into simpler forms)

7. Absorption (movement of substances through membranes and into fluids)

8. Circulation (movement within body fluids)

9. Assimilation (changing nutrients into chemically different forms)

10. Excretion (removal of metabolic wastes)

  • Taken together, these 10 characteristics constitute metabolism.

The human body

Requirements of Organisms:

  • Life depends on the availability of the following:

    a. Water (required for metabolic reactions, for transport of substances, for temperature regulation)

    b. Food (nutrients needed to supply energy and raw materials

    for building new living matter)

    c. Oxygen (used in releasing energy from nutrients)

    d. Heat (a byproduct of metabolism; its presence governs the

    rate at which reactions occur)

    e. Pressure (force required to facilitate movement of air or


  • Both the quality and quantity of these factors are important.



The ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment within prescribed physiological limits.

Parameters maintained in homeostasis
Parameters Maintained in Homeostasis

  • gas concentrations

  • temperature

  • pressure

  • pH (acidity)

  • nutrients

  • water

S t r e s s

  • Any factor which disrupts homeostasis.

  • Any stimulus which creates an imbalance in the body’s internal environment

  • Anything that causes stress…

    • Physical

    • Emotional

    • Metabolic

    • Environmental

      = Stressor

  • Two main Stressor types:

    • External

    • Internal

External stressors
External Stressors

  • Heat

  • Cold

  • Noise

  • Light

  • Exercise

Internal stressors
Internal Stressors

  • Pain

  • Tumors

  • High blood pressure

  • Chemical imbalances

  • Unpleasant thoughts

Types of feedback mechanisms
Types of Feedback Mechanisms

  • Negative Feedback Mechanisms (Inhibitory)

    • The response counteracts the input.

    • The most common feedback mechanism.

    • Examples:

      • blood pressure

      • blood sugar regulation

      • cardiac output

      • temperature regulation

  • Positive Feedback Mechanisms (Stimulatory)

    • The response is intensified by the input.

    • Example: Breastfeeding by an infant, childbirth, and blood clotting.

Body quadrants

Body Quadrants

The abdominopelvic cavity can be functionally divided into quadrants.

Abdominopelvic quadrants
Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  • Used by clinical personnel to describe the location of abdominopelvic pain, tumors, and other abnormalities.

  • Functionally divides the abdominopelvic cavity into four quadrants:

    • RUQ - Right Upper Quadrant

    • LUQ - Left Upper Quadrant

    • RLQ - Right Lower Quadrant

    • LLQ - Left Lower Quadrant

Quadrants and organs
Quadrants and Organs

  • RUQ –

    liver, gallbladder, right kidney

  • LUQ –

    stomach, pancreas,

    spleen, left kidney

  • RLQ –

    appendix, right ovary

  • LLQ –

    left ovary