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Concepts of Database Management, Fifth Edition

Concepts of Database Management, Fifth Edition

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Concepts of Database Management, Fifth Edition

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  1. Concepts of Database Management, Fifth Edition Chapter 4: The Relational Model 3: Advanced Topics

  2. Objectives • Define, describe, and use views • Use indexes to improve database performance • Examine the security features of a database management system (DBMS) • Discuss entity, referential, and legal-values integrity • Make changes to the structure of a relational database • Define and use the system catalog Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  3. Views • Application program’s or individual user’s picture of the database • Less involved than full database • Offers simplification • Provides measure of security • Sensitive tables or columns omitted where not appropriate Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  4. SELECT Command • Called the defining query • Indicates precisely what to include in the view • Query acts as a sort of window into the database • Does not produce a new table, only the view of the table Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  5. Figure 4.1: SQL to Create View CREATE VIEW Housewares AS SELECT PartNum, Description, OnHand, Price FROM Part WHERE Class=‘HW’ ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  6. Query on a View • With a query that involves a view, the DBMS changes the query to one that selects data from table(s) in the database that created the view • The DBMS merges the query with the query that defines the view to form the query that is actually executed • One advantage of this approach is that the view never exists in its own right so any update to the table is immediately available in the view • If the view were a table, this would not be the case Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  7. Query on a View • Selects data only from Tables created in the view • Query is merged with query used to create view SELECT * FROM Housewares WHERE OnHand< 25 ; Actually executes as SELECT PartNum, Description, OnHand, Price FROM Part WHERE Class=‘HW’ AND OnHand< 25 ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  8. Figures 4.3 - 4.4: Access Query Design of View Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  9. Access Query Design View with Changed Field Names • SQL can be used to change the field names in a view by including the new field names in the CREATE VIEW statement • The CREATE VIEW statement would be: CREATE VIEW SalesCust (Snum, SLast, SFirst, Cnum, CName) AS SELECT Rep.RepNum, LastName, FirstName, CustomerNum, CustomerName FROM Rep, Customer WHERE Rep.RepNum=Customer.RepNum ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  10. Figures 4.5-4.6: Access Query Design of View with Changed Field Names Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  11. Row and Column Subset View • Consists of a subset of the rows and columns in some individual table • Because the query can be any SQL query, a view could also join two or more tables Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  12. Advantages of Views • Provides data independence • Same data viewed by different users in different ways • Contains only information required by a given user Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  13. Indexes • Conceptually similar to book index • Increases data retrieval efficiency • Automatically assigns record numbers • Used by DBMS, not by users • Fields on which index built called Index Key Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  14. Figure 4.10: Customer Table with Record Numbers Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  15. Figure 4.11: Customer Table Index on CustomerNum Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  16. Figure 4.12: Table Indexes on CreditLimit, RepNum Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  17. Pros/Cons of Indexes • Can be added or dropped without loss of function • Can make retrieval more efficient • Occupies space that might be required for other functions • DBMS must update index whenever corresponding data are updated Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  18. SQL to Create Index CREATE INDEX CustomerName ON Customer (CustomerName) ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  19. Creating Indexes • Single-field index – an index whose key is a single field • Multiple-field index • An index with more than one key field • List the most important key first • If data for either key appears in descending order, follow the field name with the letters DESC Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  20. SQL to Delete Index DROP INDEX RepBal ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  21. Figure 4.13: Index on Single Field in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  22. Figure 4.14: Index on Multiple Fields in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  23. Security • Prevention of unauthorized access to database • Two SQL security mechanisms • GRANT provides privileges to users • REVOKE removes privileges from users GRANT SELECT ON Customer TO JONES ; REVOKE SELECT ON Customer FROM JONES ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  24. Integrity Rules • Related to foreign keys and primary keys • Defined by Dr. E.F. Codd • Entity integrity • No field that is part of the primary key may accept null values Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  25. Integrity Rules (con’t) • To specify primary key, enter a PRIMARY KEY clause in either an ALTER TABLE or a CREATE TABLE command • Foreign key – a field (or collection of fields) in a table whose value is required to match the value of the primary key for a second table Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  26. Figure 4.15: Primary Key in Access PRIMARY KEY (CustomerNum) Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  27. Figure 4.16: Multi-Field Primary Key in Access PRIMARY KEY (OrderNum, PartNum) Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  28. Referential integrity • If Table A contains a foreign key matching the primary key of Table B, then values must match for some row in Table B or be null • Usually a foreign key is in a different table from the primary key it is required to match • The only restriction is that the foreign key must have a name that is different from the primary key because the fields are in the same table Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  29. Figure 4.17: Relationships Window to Relate Tables in Access FOREIGN KEY (RepNum) REFERENCES Rep Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  30. Cascade Delete and Update • Cascade delete - ensures that the deletion of a master record deletes all records in sub tables related to it • Cascade update – ensures that changes made to the primary key of the master table are also made in the related records Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  31. Figure 4.18: Specifying Referential Integrity Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  32. Enforcing Referential Integrity • With referential integrity enforced, users are not allowed to enter a record that does not match any sales rep currently in the Rep table • An error message, such as the one shown in Figure 4.19, appears when an attempt is made to enter an invalid record Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  33. Figure 4.19: Violating Referential Integrity on Adding Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  34. Legal-Values Integrity • States no record can exist with field values other than legal ones • Use SQL CHECK clause • Validation rule – in Access, a rule that data entered into a field must follow • Validation – in Access, text to inform the user of the reason for the rejection when the user attempts to enter data that violates the rule CHECK (CreditLimit IN (5000, 7500, 10000, 15000)) ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  35. Validation Rule in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  36. Structure Changes • Can change the database structure • By adding and removing tables and fields • By changing the characteristics of existing fields • By creating and dropping indexes • The exact manner in which these changes are accomplished varies from one system to another • Most systems allow all of these changes to be made quickly and easily • Made using the SQL ALTER TABLE command Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  37. Structure Changes – Add and Change Adding new field ALTER TABLE Customer ADD CustType CHAR(1) ; Changing field properties ALTER TABLE Customer CHANGE COLUMN CustomerName TO CHAR(50) ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  38. Figure 4.22: Add Field in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  39. Figure 4.23: Change Field Characteristic in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  40. Structure Changes - Delete Deleting field ALTER TABLE Part DELETE Warehouse ; Delete SQL Table DROP TABLE SmallCust ; Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  41. Figure 4.24: Delete Field in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  42. Figure 4.25: Delete Table in Access Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  43. System Catalog • Information about database kept in system catalog • Maintained by DBMS • Example catalog has two tables • Systables – information about the tables known to SQL • Syscolumns – information about the columns or fields within these tables Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  44. System Catalog (con’t.) • Other possible tables • Sysindexes – information about the indexes that are defined on these tables • Sysviews – information about the views that have been created Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  45. Figure 4.26: Systables Table Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  46. Summary • Views - used to give each user his or her own view of the data in a database • View is defined in structured query language (SQL) by using a defining query • Indexes are often used to facilitate data retrieval from the database • Security is provided in SQL systems using the GRANT and REVOKE commands • Entity integrity is the property that states that no field that is part of the primary key can accept null values Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  47. Summary • Referential integrity - property stating that the value in any foreign key field must either be null or match an actual value in the primary key field of another table • Legal-values integrity is the property that states that the value entered in a field must be one of the legal values • The ALTER TABLE command allows you to add fields to a table, delete fields, or change the characteristics of fields Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition

  48. Summary • The DROP TABLE command lets you delete a table from a database • The system catalog is a feature of many relational DBMSs that stores information about the structure of a database Concepts of Database Management, 5th Edition