greek tragedy sophocles and euripides n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Greek Tragedy, Sophocles and Euripides PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Greek Tragedy, Sophocles and Euripides

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 86

Greek Tragedy, Sophocles and Euripides - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 182 Views
  • Uploaded on

Greek Tragedy, Sophocles and Euripides. Week 15. 希臘戲劇. 悲劇 喜劇 撒特劇 ( 薩提洛斯劇 ). 悲劇. 角色 : 多半是身分地位高於一般民眾的 英雄、國王、貴族或神祈 劇情 : 際遇由盛而衰 使用語言較高雅 蘊含積極意義 強烈道德意涵. 喜劇. 角色 : 多半是地位低於一般大眾的人物 劇情 : 自逆境漸入佳境 使用語言多為一般生活用語 發展晚於悲劇. 撒特劇 ( 薩提洛斯劇 ). 輕鬆詼諧、滑稽戲謔 語言粗鄙、動作放縱 嘲諷 作為嚴肅悲劇演出後的餘興.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Greek Tragedy, Sophocles and Euripides' - penny


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2
希臘戲劇

悲劇

喜劇

撒特劇(薩提洛斯劇)

Alice Y. Chang

slide3
悲劇

角色:多半是身分地位高於一般民眾的

英雄、國王、貴族或神祈

劇情:際遇由盛而衰

使用語言較高雅

蘊含積極意義

強烈道德意涵

Alice Y. Chang

slide4
喜劇

角色:多半是地位低於一般大眾的人物

劇情:自逆境漸入佳境

使用語言多為一般生活用語

發展晚於悲劇

Alice Y. Chang

slide5
撒特劇(薩提洛斯劇)

輕鬆詼諧、滑稽戲謔

語言粗鄙、動作放縱

嘲諷

作為嚴肅悲劇演出後的餘興

Alice Y. Chang

slide7
希臘戲劇

內容:宗教精神、風俗文化

演出場地:天然的露天圓形劇場,圓形廣場為表演區

Alice Y. Chang

theater of dionysus1
Theater of Dionysus

Alice Y. Chang

theater of dionysus2
Theater of Dionysus

Alice Y. Chang

slide15
古希臘悲劇

Alice Y. Chang

真正起源已經不可考。現在一般認為起源於酒神

在祭祀中,合唱隊(Chorus)會表演歌舞祭祀酒神戴奧尼索斯(Dionysus),這種歌舞被稱為「酒神頌」 。

「酒神頌」發展到後來,逐漸擴大到神話和英雄傳說的範圍——悲劇的形式逐步發展和完善,成為一種固定的敘事體。

peisistratus
皮西斯瑞特斯 Peisistratus

Alice Y. Chang

就人類戲劇史而言,皮氏最大的貢獻,是他在西元前534年創立了悲劇競賽。

希臘悲劇與宗教儀式有密切的關係。但是世界大部分的地區都曾有過類似的儀式,唯有雅典才能在那麼早就能把它蛻化成為戲劇~

slide17

Tragedy= Goat song

The word tragedy literally means "goat song," probably referring to the practice of giving a goat as a sacrifice or a prize at the religious festivals in honor of the god Dionysus.

Alice Y. Chang

slide18
希臘戲劇

早期:ㄧ個演員一個歌隊

Aeschylus

兩個演員一個歌隊

Sophocles

三個演員一個歌隊

日後希臘戲劇維持為三人,ㄧ人分飾多角

Alice Y. Chang

thespians
Thespians
  • 希臘戲劇的第一個確切紀錄見之於西元五三四年,這一年「城市的戴神節」組織改變,在各項活動中加入了悲劇演出競賽。
  • 戲劇在此以前勢必早已存在,否則不會又有此競賽。這時其中唯一可考的戲劇家就是賽士比斯(Thespis),也就是第一次悲劇競賽的冠軍得主,並且,由於他也是第一個?是人所知的演員,以後演員們就常被叫做賽士比斯之徒(Thespians)

Alice Y. Chang

slide20
和諧: 理性與非理性
  • 在宗教的領域中,竟然包括了非理念力量,這顯示希臘人相信對自然的每一部分都應適當崇敬,否則災厄就會隨之而產生。
  • 希臘人始終努力,要在所有相衝突的力量之間無論是內心的還是外在的,達成和諧。

Alice Y. Chang

sophocles
Sophocles生平

496B.C~406B.C

生於雅典北邊名叫Colonus的村落

受良好教育,擅音樂、體育、舞蹈…等

因為貌美與音樂天賦被推選為慶祝戰爭勝利祭儀中少年合唱團領導

Alice Y. Chang

sophocles 496b c 406b c
索福克里斯(Sophocles, 496B.C. - 406B.C.)
  • 生於一個富裕家庭,當時正適逢雅典城邦的黃金時期,雅典人活於滿懷自信的年代,他們的哲學家相信「人是衡量一切的標準」。
  • 但過分的自信令他們傲慢而又熱忱於爭名逐利。當時詭辯學應運而生,處士橫議,傳統的信仰受到挑戰。索福克里斯對這種風尚深感憂慮,在劇本中,他反複出了他的勸導與警告。

Alice Y. Chang

sophocles1
Sophocles生平

曾任以雅典為盟主的「德利亞聯盟」的財政總管

兩度被選為將軍(政府的最高官位)

祭師

「生前完滿,身後無憾。」

Alice Y. Chang

sophocles2
Sophocles創作

生涯劇作有110部左右(130、125、123)

現存七部戲劇及少數殘本

ㄧ:阿傑克斯(Ajax c.450B.C)

二:安蒂岡尼(Antigone c.442B.C)

三:屈欽妮亞(Trachiniae c.413B.C)

四:伊底帕斯王(Oedipus Rex c.425B.C)

五:伊蕾特拉(Electra c.410B.C)

六:菲洛特提斯(Philoctetes c.409B.C)

七:伊底帕斯在柯隆納斯(Oedipus at Colonus

c.401B.C)

Alice Y. Chang

slide25
索福克里斯改進了舞台設計
  • 減低了歌隊在戲劇中的重要性,但更重要的是他首先引進了戲劇中的第三個演員,因而展開了前所未有的複雜性。
  • 在他的戲劇中,最關心的是人際關係的問題,而非艾思奇利斯的戲劇所關注的人與神關係的問題,劇中的悲劇英雄大都因自身的性格特點而促使悲劇的發生,而非像艾思奇利斯的悲劇般常涉及宗教力量的。
  • 他本人曾說過,他筆下的悲劇英雄都是「他們應當如此」(they ought to be)。

Alice Y. Chang

slide26
《伊狄帕斯王》
  • 而比起艾思奇利斯的劇本,索福克里斯的作品更注重技巧高潮的建立與片段的完美發展,其中尤以《伊狄帕斯王》最為出色,堪稱索福克里斯甚至是悲劇史上的代表作。

Alice Y. Chang

sophocles3
Sophocles

倡民主,反暴政

歌頌英雄主義

佈局複雜嚴密、細緻入微

創作獨立、完整的單部劇本

將演員增加到三個~合唱團退於次要地位

~自此戲劇無合唱團參與也可獨立進行

Alice Y. Chang

euripides
Euripides

「舞台上的哲學家」的美稱

悲劇內容大多以家庭生活為題材,討論戰爭、民主、貧富、宗教、婦女地位…等問題

討論雅典奴隸民主制衰弱時期的社會思想

寫實

現存十八部作品,是傳世作品最多的古希臘悲劇家

Alice Y. Chang

aristophanes menander
阿里斯陶芬尼斯(Aristophanes)與米南得爾(Menander)。阿里斯陶芬尼斯(Aristophanes)與米南得爾(Menander)。
  • 雖然古希臘的戲劇有好幾個世紀的歷史,留存至今的卻只有五個劇作家的作品愛斯奇勒勒斯(Aeschyles),索發克里斯(Sopholes),優里皮底斯(Euripides),阿里斯陶芬尼斯(Aristophanes)與米南得爾(Menander)。
  • 而他們的大量劇作中,僅存的也不過四十五個其中三十二個悲劇,十二個喜劇,一個撒特劇(satyr p Lay),除了其中四個之外,所有的這些劇本都做於西元前第五世紀。

Alice Y. Chang

recurrent themes in tragedy
Recurrent Themes in Tragedy

P.148

Von Reden, Sitta. Exchange in Ancient Greece. London: Duckworth, 1995.

Alice Y. Chang

first
First
  • There is a general reflection upon the tension between nature and civilization which thought to be controlled by marriage, sacrifice, and agriculture.

Alice Y. Chang

secondly
Secondly
  • There is a vital concern about the relationship between oikos and polis and their conflicting claims to the loyalty (philia) of their members;

Alice Y. Chang

thirdly
Thirdly
  • There is an extended debate on the relationship between Athenian law and divine nomos;

Alice Y. Chang

fourthly
Fourthly
  • Most plays contain a self-reflexive debate on linguistic exchange, the power of logoi and their manipulative force on society and its individual members;

Alice Y. Chang

finally
Finally
  • They are framed in a discourse which uses Homeric imagery and mythology for the discussion of contemporary problems.

Alice Y. Chang

all these themes are interlocked
All these themes are interlocked.
  • This not only ties together scenes which seem at first unconnected, but also gives a complex meaning to every individual image.

Alice Y. Chang

from aeschylus to sophocles
From Aeschylus to Sophocles

Alice Y. Chang

Aeschylus belonged tothe generation that fought at Marathon; his manhood and his old age were passed in the heroic period of the Persian defeat on Greek soil and the war that Athens fought to liberate its kin in the islands of the Aegean and on the Asiatic coast.

Sophocles, his younger contemporary, lived to see an Athens that had advanced in power and prosperity far beyond the city that Aeschylus knew.

involvement in city s affairs
Involvement in city’s affairs

Alice Y. Chang

The league of free Greek cities against Persia that Athens had led to victory in the Aegean had become an empire, in which Athens taxed and coerced the subject cities that had once been its free allies.

Sophocles, born around 496 B.C., played his part—a prominent one—in the city’s affairs.

treasurer
treasurer
  • In 443 B.C. he served as one of the treasurers of the imperial league and, with Pericles, as one of the ten generals elected for the war against the island of Samos, which tried to secede form the Athenian league a few years later.

Alice Y. Chang

a special committee
A special committee

Alice Y. Chang

When the Athenian expedition to Sicily ended in disaster, Sophocles was appointed to a special committee set up in 411 B.C. to deal with the emergency.

He died two years before Athens surrendered to Sparta.

129 plays
129 plays

Alice Y. Chang

His career as a brilliantly successful dramatist began in 468; in that year he won first prize at the Dionysia, competing against Aeschylus.

Over the next sixty-two years he produced more than 120 plays.

He won first prize no fewer than twenty-four times, and when he was not first, he came in second, never third.

no acting in his own plays
No acting in his own plays

Alice Y. Chang

Aeschylus had been an actor as well as a playwright and director, but Sophocles, early in his career, gave up acting.

It was he who added a third actor to the team; the early Aeschylean plays (Persians, Seven Against Thebes, and Suppliants) can be played by two actors (who of course can change masks to extend the range of dramatis personae).

the third actor
The third actor

Alice Y. Chang

In the Oresteia, Aeschylus has taken advantage of the Sophoclean third actor; this makes possible the role of Cassandra, the one three-line speech of Pylades in The Libation Bearers, and the trial scene in The Eumenides.

But Sophocles used his third actor to create complex triangular scenes like the dialogue between Oedipus and Corinthian messenger, which reveals to a listening Jocasta the ghastly truth that Oedipus will not discover until the next scene.

seven extant plays
Seven extant plays

Alice Y. Chang

  • We have only seven of his plays, and not many of them can be accurately dated.
  • Ajax (which deals with the suicide of the hero whose shade turns silently away from Odysseus in the Odyssey) and Trachiniae(the story of the death of Heracles) are both generally thought to be early productions. Antigoneis fairly securely fixed in the late 440s, and Oedipus the King was probably staged during the early years of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.).
electra philoctetes and oedipus at colonus
Electra, Philoctetesand Oedipus at Colonus

Alice Y. Chang

For Electra we have no date, but it is probably later than Oedipus the King.

Philoctetes, a tale of the Trojan War, was staged in 409 B.C.

and Oedipus at Colonus, which presents Oedipus’s strangely triumphant death on Athenian soil, was produced after Sophocles’ death.

intellectual revolution
Intellectual revolution

Alice Y. Chang

Most of these plays date from the last half of the fifth century B.C.; they were written in and for an Athens that, since the days of Aeschylus, had undergone an intellectual revolution.

It was in a time of critical reevaluation of accepted standards and traditions that Sophocles produced his masterpiece, Oedipus the King, and the problems of the time are reflected in the play.

mysterious contemporary
Mysterious + contemporary

Alice Y. Chang

The use of the familiar myth enabled the dramatist to draw on all its wealth of unformulated meaning, but it did not prevent him from striking a contemporary note. Oedipus, in Sophocles’ play, is at one and the same time the mysterious figure of the past who broke the most fundamental human taboos and a typical fifth-century Athenian.

His character contains all the virtues for which the Athenians were famous and the vices for which they were notorious.

pecicles and oedipus
Pecicles and Oedipus

Alice Y. Chang

The Athenian devotion to the city, which received the main emphasis in Pericles’ praise of Athens, is strong in Oedipus; his answer to the priest at the beginning of the play shows that he is a conscientious and patriotic ruler. His quick rage is the characteristic fault of Athenian democracy, which in 406 B.C., to give only one instance, condemned and executed the generals who had failed, in the stress of weather and battle, to pick up the drowned bodies of their own men killed in the naval engagement at Arginusae.

i must know know thyself
I must know! Know thyself!

Alice Y. Chang

Oedipus is like the fifth-century Athenian most of all in his confidence in the human intelligence, especially his own.

euripides1

EURIPIDES

480-406 B.C.

Alice Y. Chang

medea
Medea

Alice Y. Chang

Euripides’ Medea, produced in 431 B.C., the year that brought the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, appeared earlier than Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, but it has a bitterness that is more in keeping with the spirit of a later age.

modern sense
Modern sense

Alice Y. Chang

If Oedipus is, in one sense, a warning to a generation that has embarked on an intellectual revolution, Medea is the ironic expression of the disillusion that comes after the shipwreck.

In this play we are conscious for the first time of an attitude characteristic of modern literature, the artist’s feeling of separation from the audience, the isolation of the poet.

rejected by his contemporaries
rejected by his contemporaries

Alice Y. Chang

  • The common background of audience and poet is disappearing, the old certainties are being undermined, the city divided.
  • Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the fate of so many of the great modern writers: rejected by most of his contemporaries (he rarely won first prize and was the favorite target for the scurrilous humor of the comic poets), he was universally admired and revered by the Greeks of the centuries that followed his death.
private and intellectual life
Private and intellectual life

Alice Y. Chang

It is significant that what little biographical information we have for Euripides makes no mention of military service or political office; unlike Aeschylus, who fought in the ranks at Marathon, and Sophocles, who took an active part in public affairs from youth to advanced old age, Euripides seems to have lived a private, an intellectual life.

questioning the received ideas
Questioning the received ideas

Alice Y. Chang

  • Younger than Sophocles ( though they died in the same year), he was more receptive to the critical theories and the rhetorical techniques offered by the Sophist teachers;
  • his plays often subject received ideas to fundamental questioning, expressed in vivid dramatic debate.
  • His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic approach; his choice of subject and central characters is in itself a challenge to established canons. He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses is exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is not a man but a woman.
the citizen rights
The citizen rights?

Alice Y. Chang

Medea is both woman and foreigner—that is, in terms of the audience’s prejudice and practice she is a representative of the two free-born groups in Athenian society that had almost no rights at all (though the male foreign resident had more rights than the native woman).

anti social
Anti-social

Alice Y. Chang

The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one who is highly renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,” but a woman who, because she finds no redress for her wrongs in society, is driven by her passion to violate that society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion against its typical representative, Jason, her husband.

earth and sun
Earth and Sun

Alice Y. Chang

  • All through Medea the human beings involved call on the gods; two especially are singled out for attention: Earth and Sun.
  • It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus invokes them to prevent Medea’s violence against her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea can look on Earth and Sun after she has killed her own children.
the magic chariot
The Magic Chariot

Alice Y. Chang

These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question of the attitude of the gods, and the answer to the question is a shock.

We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends the magic chariot on which Medea makes her escape.

rejected by most of his contemporaries
rejected by most of his contemporaries
  • Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the fate of so many of the great modern writers: rejected by most of his contemporaries(he rarely won first prize and was the favorite target for the scurrilous humor of the comic poets), he was universally admired and revered by the Greeks of the centuries that followed his death.

Alice Y. Chang

iconoclastic
Iconoclastic
  • His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic approach; his choice of subject and central characters is in itself a challenge to established canons.
  • He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses is exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is not a man but a woman.
  • Medea is both woman and foreigner, that is, in terms of the audience’s prejudice and practice she is a representative of the two free-born groups in Athenian society that had almost no rights at all (though the male foreign resident had more rights than the native woman).

Alice Y. Chang

great intellectual power
great intellectual power
  • She is not just a woman and a foreigner, she is also a person of great intellectual power.
  • Compared with her the credulous king and her complacent husband are children, and once her mind is made up, she moves them like pawns to their proper places in her barbaric game.
  • The myth is used for new purposes, to shock the members of the audience, attack their deepest prejudices, and shake them out of their complacent pride in the superiority of Greek masculinity.

Alice Y. Chang

finds no redress
Finds no redress
  • The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one who is highly renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,” but a woman who, because she finds no redress for her wrongs in society, is driven by her passion to violate that society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion against its typical representative, Jason, her husband.

Alice Y. Chang

earth and sun1
Earth and Sun
  • All through Medea the human beings involved call on the gods; two especially are singled out for attention: Earth and Sun.
  • It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus invokes them to prevent Medea’s violence against her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea can look on Earth and Sun after she has killed her own children.
  • These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question of the attitude of the gods, and the answer to the question is a shock. We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends the magic chariot on which Medea makes her escape.

Alice Y. Chang

http www imdb cn title tt0066065
電影版劇情簡介: http://www.imdb.cn/title/tt0066065

美狄亞,或譯米蒂亞,是古往今來最著名的復仇女性,也是所有受背叛、嫉妒所苦的女性的守護神。爲了愛上一個外邦人傑森,她抛卻公主地位、竊走國寶金羊毛、殺死弟弟,甘願隨夫遠走他鄉、漂泊失所。然而她的勇敢愛情和偉大犧牲最終卻變成一則笑話:丈夫決定另娶柯林斯公主,換取穩定名位。美狄亞走投無路之下,展開恐怖報復:先是獻毒衣焚殺丈夫的新歡,繼而手刃兩個小孩,乘太陽神的華車遠颺,留下一無所有的負心丈夫。  

Alice Y. Chang

pier paolo pasolini
導演:皮耶‧保羅‧帕索里尼 Pier Paolo Pasolini
  • 從希臘悲劇到現代戲劇,這個故事被翻寫過無數回。Pasolini的版本抛開三一律(注)古典包袱,以一位來自遠古的情欲象徵──半人半馬怪爲敘事者,把來龍去脈從頭說起。他到土耳其和敘利亞取鏡,將場景拉回故事發生的高加索蠻荒世界,開場恍如人類學影片:一場驚心動魄、交糅恐怖與狂喜的原始儀式,美狄亞正是祭司,殺人獻祭的過程呼應了後來的血腥報復手腕。兩性戰爭被轉化爲美狄亞的史前泛靈世界與傑森的現代務實世界的對比。美狄亞嫁給傑森後,在理性世界中彷佛淪落得法力盡失。

Alice Y. Chang

ending
ending
  • 最後,在希臘悲劇中揚長而去的美狄亞,電影卻讓她消失在熊熊烈焰中──太陽神的華輦也被現實化了,直接關涉到美狄亞的熾烈性情。就像《定理》中的性瓦解了中産價值,《美狄亞》中的巫術神話力量也反撲了現代文明。   別以爲你看錯了:飾演這位剛烈女性的,的確是歌劇女神瑪麗亞卡拉絲。雖然她在片中從未開口歌唱,但那雙引人著魔的眼睛仍然噴出了烈火。
  • http://video.mail.ru/mail/karelina-natalia/4815/28316.html

Alice Y. Chang

the dance of ares
The Dance of Ares
  • The plains of Boeotia, called “the dance of Ares (Mars)” because many battles were fought there.
  • Alexander, by destroying Thebes in 335 BCE, shocked Greece into accepting his power.
  • The end of classical Greece: 337-322 BCE

Alice Y. Chang

supplementary materials sophocles philoctetes

Supplementary Materials:Sophocles’ Philoctetes

Themes and discussion

Alice Y. Chang

philoctetes
Philoctetes

Alice Y. Chang

philoctetes is leaving the island of lemnos
Philoctetes is leaving the island of Lemnos
  • A cave had been Philoctetes’ home since the Greeks abandoned him on Lemnos.
  • Philoctetes sits clutching his magic bow in his left hand.
  • Above right is Odyssues.
  • To the left are Athene and Neoplotemos.

Alice Y. Chang

lemons
Lemons
  • Lemnos or Limnos is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
  • It is part of the Greek prefecture of Lesbos and has a considerable area, about 477 km².

Alice Y. Chang

a sacred island
A sacred island
  • For ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, who— as he tells himself in Iliad I.590ff— fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus.
  • There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad or by Thetis (Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I:3.5), and there with a Thracian nymph Cabiro (a daughter of Proteus) he fathered a tribe called the Cabiroides.
  • Sacred rites dedicated to them were performed in the island.

Alice Y. Chang

lemnos by paul hetherington
LEMNOSBY PAUL HETHERINGTON
  • The position of Lemnos in the northern Aegean, where it lies midway between the tip of the Mount Athos promontory and the coast of Asia Minor, meant that control over it was always sought after. Any ships entering or leaving the Hellespont (the Passage of Romania, now the Dardanelles) could do so only with the knowledge (and often the permission) of the current rulers of Lemnos.

Alice Y. Chang

lesbos
Lesbos
  • The frequency with which their identity might change is a symptom of its strategic importance to the Hellenic would throughout its history.
  • The island is now administered under the nomos of Lesbos.

Alice Y. Chang

two sectors
Two sectors
  • Lemnos has an area of 476 sq km and, like a number of the Aegean islands, its shape indicates its volcanic origins, two bays to north and south almost dividing the island in two;
    • the smaller, eastern, sector was where the capital of the island in antiquity, Hephaestus, was situated,
    • while on the coast of the western sector, larger and much more mountainous with the highest peak of Mount Skopia reaching 430 m, the medieval and modern capital of Myrina is located.

Alice Y. Chang

lemnian earth
Lemnian earth
  • The low-lying and flatter areas of the island are quite fertile, and produce a variety of crops.
  • A tradition, already current in antiquity and still existing in the 20th century, credited Lemnian earth, excavated on one day each year, with the power of healing many kinds of wounds; it was exported all over the Hellenic world.

Alice Y. Chang

figured both in homeric legend and in hellenic history
figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history
  • In antiquity Lemnos figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history.
  • Herodotus (4.145) related how the Argonauts, who according to legend had arrived on the island and left progeny there, were driven out of Lemnos three generations later by the Pelasgi.
  • Later (5. 26) he described how Lemnos, with Imbros, was taken from the Pelasgi by Otanes, who had already occupied Byzantium and Chalcedon.
  • The stronghold of Myrina figured early in the history of the island, as when Miltiades, having called on the Pelasgi to leave the island—a call which the townspeople of Hephaestus obeyed—was defied by the inhabitants of Myrina, whom he besieged (no doubt secure in their rock-perched fortress) before eventually ejecting them by force.

Alice Y. Chang

argonauts
ARGONAUTS
  • When the ARGONAUTS, in their way to Colchis, came to Lemnos, they found out that all males had been murdered.
  • For the Lemnian women, having learned that their husbands had taken Thracian wives, resolved to kill all men in Lemnos.

Alice Y. Chang

philoctetes and odysseus
Philoctetes and Odysseus
  • http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Philoctetes.html
  • Only Philoctetes excelled me with the bow in the land of the Trojans, when we Achaeans shot." (Odysseus to the Phaeacians. Homer, Odyssey 8.220).
  • "Destruction shall have end when you are dead, the author of our bane." (Philoctetes to Paris. Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy 10.229).

Alice Y. Chang