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Exercise for Health and Fitness. By: . By Joel Rosario. Focus for High School Students. Set of physical attributes that allows body to respond or adapt to demands and stress of physical effort. 5 types of physical fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance

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Exercise for Health and Fitness


By Joel Rosario

Focus for High School Students

what is physical fitness

Set of physical attributes that allows body to respond or adapt to demands and stress of physical effort.

  • 5 types of physical fitness
    • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Muscular Strength
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body Composition
What is Physical Fitness?
cardiorespiratory endurance

The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity

  • Builds healthy heart that performs more efficiently
    • Doesn’t work hard at rest or low level exercises
    • Heart pump more blood per heartbeat
    • Resting heart rate slows down
    • Resting blood pressure decreases
    • Blood supply to tissues improves
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
activities for cardiorespiratory endurance
Activities for Cardiorespiratory Endurance





muscular strength

Amount of force a muscle can produce with single maximum effort.

  • Benefits
    • Helps with performing everyday/recreation activities
    • Keeps skeleton aligned, preventing back and leg pain
    • Provides good posture
    • Greater muscle mass makes high metabolism and faster energy use possible.
Muscular Strength
activities for muscular strength
Activities for Muscular Strength

Using weight to help develop muscular strength

Weight Training

Using body’s weight for resistance develops muscular strength


muscular endurance

Ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for long time period

  • Benefits
    • Helps with performing everyday/recreational activities
    • Good Posture
    • Injury Prevention
      • Example – Abs and back muscles
Muscular Endurance
difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance

Muscular Strength

    • Be determined by person’s ability to lift something for 1 rep maximum
  • Muscular Endurance
    • Be determined by how many times person can lift something
Difference Between Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance

Range of motion in a joint or group of joints; flexibility is related to muscle length

  • Benefits
    • Provide normal range of motion
    • Provide pain-free joints
    • Improve muscle coordination
    • Increase blood and nutrients to tissues
exercises to increase flexibility
Exercises to Increase Flexibility



Hurdler Stretch

weekly physical activity
Weekly Physical Activity


TV, Internet, Phone

Sedentary Activity

Bicep Curls, Push-Ups, Abdominal Curls, Bench Press, Calf Raises

Calf Stretch, Side Lunge, Step Stretch, Hurdler Stretch

Strength Training

2-3 days

Flexibility Training

At least 2 days

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise

3-5 days

Walking, Jogging, Bicycling , Aerobics, Swimming

Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity

Most Days

Washing Windows, Climbing Stairs, Yard Work, Walking the Dog, Cleaning

body composition

The proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body

  • Ideal body composition involves high percentage of fat-free mass and low percentage of fat mass
  • Problem with having too much fat mass
    • Heart Disease
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Stroke
    • Joint Problems
    • Diabetes
Body Composition
components of body composition

Total Body Mass (TBM) - combination of bone, muscle, fat, blood, water and viscera.

Lean Body Mass (LBM)- contains a small amount of lipid (2% to 3%)

Fat Free Body Mass (FFBM)- has no lipids

Components of Body Composition
ways to determine body fat

DEXA Scan (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)

Bioelectrical Impedance (Home Body Fat Scales)

Skinfold Calipers

Hydrostatic Weighing

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Ways to Determine Body Fat
dexa scan dual energy x ray absorptiometry

X-Ray Device

Measures body fat & bone density

Can tell location of body fat


DEXA Scan (Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)
bioelectrical impedance home body fat scales

Measures fat quick and conveniently

Sends low-level electrical current through body

Fast signal more muscle

Slow signal more fat

Bioelectrical Impedance (Home Body Fat Scales)
skinfold calipers

Also known as the pinch test

Skin is pinched at different areas with calipers

Results are plugged into a formula

Results based on idea of

thickness of body fat under


Skinfold Calipers
hydrostatic weighing

Underwater Weighing

Archimedes’ Principle - the law of buoyancy

Calculates your body density by measuring the amount of water you displace

Plugged in formula based

on body density

Hydrostatic Weighing
body mass index bmi

Measurement based on height and weight

Underweight : < 18.5

Normal Weight : 18.5 –24.9

Overweight : 25 - 29.9

Obese: 30 – 34.9

Body Mass Index (BMI)

What’s my BMI?

body mass index bmi continued

BMI is easy and convenient to calculate

  • Knowing BMI can increase understanding risk for diseases
  • BMI can be misleading
    • Doesn’t account for body frame or muscle mass
  • More information on Health go to
Body Mass Index (BMI) continued…