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Eye Examination. Heather Nelson, RN. Inspection of the Eye. eyebrows---size, extension, and texture of hair eyelids---color, edema, lesions, adequate muscle control, eyelashes, ability to close completely and open widely sclera---color, vascular pattern, should be white.

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eye examination

Eye Examination

Heather Nelson, RN

inspection of the eye
Inspection of the Eye
  • eyebrows---size, extension, and texture of hair
  • eyelids---color, edema, lesions, adequate muscle control, eyelashes, ability to close completely and open widely
  • sclera---color, vascular pattern, should be white
inspection of the eye1
Inspection of the Eye
  • Cornea---examine for clarity by shining a light on it. Blood vessels should not be present.
  • Iris---Should be round, regular, and equal in size. Note color.
  • Conjunctiva---usually free of erythema and exudate. Only inspect upper when foreign object may be present.
slide4
Eyes
  • need Snellen eye chart or Rosenbaum pocket vision card
  • need opthalmoscope
  • check for color blindness
  • check visual acquity---far at 20 feet, near at 14 inches
pupils
Pupils
  • size, shape, symmetry
  • reaction to light
  • accommodation
visual fields by confrontation
Visual Fields by Confrontation
  • do both eyes together
  • wiggle fingers at side of patient’s head
  • repeat 2-3 times to test both temporal fields
  • test eyes separately if abnormality is suspected
extraocular muscles
Extraocular Muscles
  • Have patient watch your finger as it moves through the six cardinal fields of gaze.
  • Test for convergence.
  • Observe for sustained nystagmus.
opthalmoscopic exam
Opthalmoscopic Exam
  • Darken room.
  • Start at 0 diopters.
  • Use plain white circle of light.
  • Ask pt to focus on spot on wall.
  • Find red reflex from 2 feet away. Caused by light illuminating the retina.
  • Follow in on 15 degrees.
  • Adjust diopters to focus.
  • Look at vascular supply of the retina.
  • Follow blood vessels to optic disc. Disc margin should be sharp and well-defined.
what does 20 20 mean
What does 20/20 mean?
  • Visual acuity is recorded as a fraction in which the numerator indicates the distance of the patient from the chart and the denominator indicates the distance at which the average eye can read the line.
  • Thus 20/20 means that the patient can read at 20 feet what the average person can read at 20 feet.
  • Vision not correctable to better than 20/200 is considered legal blindness.