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Dale Evarts BAT/BEP Expert Group Draft Guidelines on Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) Stockholm Convention: Regional Consultation on Draft BAT/BEP Guidelines Buenos Aires, Argentina March 14-16, 2005
Structure of the Draft Guidelines • Section I - introduction • purpose and structure of the document; • description of the characteristics of chemicals listed in Annex C; • directly relevant provisions of the Stockholm Convention, Article 5 and Annex C; • a summary of required measures under these provisions; and • relationship of these provisions to the Basel Convention
Structure of the Draft Guidelines • Section II – Alternatives • provides guidance on consideration of alternatives, including: • a checklist that may be used in applying best available techniques to new sources, and • information on other considerations of the Stockholm Convention (health, safety, environmental, social and economic, Annex C);
Structure of the Draft Guidelines • Section III - general guidance, applicable principles and descriptions of considerations that cut across multiple source categories • Section IV - compilation of the summaries provided for each category of sources in sections V and VI.
Structure of the Draft Guidelines • Sections V & VI - contain specific guidelines for each source category listed in Part II and Part III of Annex C of the Stockholm Convention. For each of the source-specific guidelines, the following information is provided: • Process description; • Sources of chemicals listed in Annex C; • Primary and secondary measures; • Performance standards; • Performance reporting
Structure of the Draft Guidelines • References and bibliographic information: • Provided at the end of each section of the guidelines • The complete list of references and bibliographic information for the guidelines and guidance will be available at: www.pops.int. • This site can be updated as relevant new information becomes available.
Section I Relation to the Basel Convention • The Basel Convention is the one other global agreement directly relevant to the application of BAT and BEP in the control of the chemicals listed in Stockholm Annex C • Stockholm Article 6 – Stockpiles and wastes • The Basel COP has developed guidance for use by the Stockholm COP in determining the best waste practices for POPs
Section IIAlternatives Article 5 and Annex C of the Stockholm Convention, when considered together, suggest that whenever Parties require the use of best available techniques for new sources, they should do so in a way that gives priority consideration to alternative processes, techniques or practices that have similar usefulness but which avoid formation and release of the listed chemicals. • Provides guidance on the consideration of alternatives under circumstances requiring the use of best available techniques for new sources • Identifies elements of environmental, health, safety and socio-economic considerations including: • Reviewing the proposed new facility in the context of sustainable development • Identifying possible and available alternatives • Undertaking a comparative evaluation of both the proposed and identified possible and available alternatives • Providing priority consideration
Section III – Guidance, GeneralPrinciples, and Cross-Cutting Considerations Guidance • General considerations: • Timing, action plans & NIPs • Policy, legal and governance issues: • Country specificity • Types of measures • Scientific and technical issues • BAT and BEP will advance with time • Economic and social implications • Economic and social factors will be important determinants of BAT/BEP • New versus existing sources • Phase in of requirements for new sources • Promotion of BAT/BEP for existing sources
Section III – Guidance, GeneralPrinciples, and Cross-Cutting Considerations General Principles • Sustainable development. • Sustainable consumption. • Development and implementation of environmental management systems. • Precautionary approach. • Internalizing environmental costs and polluter pays. • Pollution prevention. • Integrated pollution prevention and control. • Co-benefits of controlling other pollutants. • Cleaner production. • Life cycle analysis. • Life cycle management. • Virtual elimination.
Cross-cutting Considerations Section III – Guidance, GeneralPrinciples, and Cross-Cutting Considerations • Chemicals listed in Annex C: Formation mechanisms • Thermal processes • Industrial-chemical processes • Waste management considerations include • Reference to waste & hazardous waste strategies of the Basel Convention • Importance of source reduction • Avoidance of open burning
Cross-cutting Considerations(continued) Section III – Guidance, GeneralPrinciples, and Cross-Cutting Considerations • Management of flue gases • Flue gas treatment techniques • Treatment of flue gas residues • Training of decision makers and technical personnel • Importance recognised in Convention • Particularly relevant to BAT/BEP issue • Testing, monitoring and reporting of releases • Important for evaluation of compliance
Section IVCompilation of Summaries • Each summary includes the following, as appropriate: • A brief description of the source, its purpose and the processes involved; • Potential of the source for generation of chemicals listed in Annex C of the Stockholm Convention; • Best available techniques and best environmental practices to minimize emissions of chemicals listed in Annex C; • Primary and secondary measures that may assist in reducing emissions; • Alternatives, where applicable, to current processes and practices; • Achievable performance levels.
Section VGuidelines for Part II Categories • Waste incinerators • Municipal solid waste, hazardous waste & sewage sludge • Medical waste • Cement kilns firing hazardous waste • Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine • Thermal processes in the metallurgical industry • Secondary copper production • Sinter plants in the iron & steel industry • Secondary aluminium production • Secondary zinc production
Section VIGuidelines for Part III Categories • Open burning of waste, including burning of landfill sites • Thermal processes in the metallurgical industry not mentioned in Annex C, Part II: • Secondary lead production • Primary aluminium production • Magnesium production • Secondary steel production • Primary base metals production • Residential combustion sources • Fossil fuel-fired utility and industrial boilers • Firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels • Specific chemical production processes releasing chemicals listed in Annex C • Crematoria • Motor vehicles, particularly those burning leaded gasoline • Destruction of animal carcasses • Textile and leather dyeing and finishing • Shredder plants for the treatment of end-of-life vehicles • Smouldering of copper cables • Waste oil refineries