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CURRENT STATUS OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT. January 2004 Changwon Kim Pusan National University. 목 차. 서론 LCA 관련 개념 LCA 선도 기관 및 사업 ISO 14000 LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES, UNEP & SETAC SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, USEPA,NRMRL INFORMATION SOURCES. 서 론.

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current status of life cycle assessment
CURRENT STATUS OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

January 2004

Changwon Kim

Pusan National University

slide2
목 차
  • 서론
  • LCA 관련 개념
  • LCA 선도 기관 및 사업
  • ISO 14000
  • LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVES, UNEP & SETAC
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, USEPA,NRMRL
  • INFORMATION SOURCES
slide3
서 론
  • LCA는 미국에서 1970년대 부터 개발되기 시작하였으나 현재는 유럽 및 일본에서 보다 더 활발함.
  • LCA는 Product, Process, 혹은 Service가 원료수집, 제품생산, 소비 및 사용, 폐기되는 전과정에서 환경에 미치는 영향을 평가함.
  • 국제사회에서 공적으로는 ISO14000을 표준으로 회사 및 기관의 환경경영체제를 인증함.
slide4
LCA 관련 개념
  • Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Analysis,

Life Cycle Interpretation

  • Eco Design
  • Green Design
  • Green Engineering
  • LC Engineering
  • Industrial Ecology
green design
Green Design
  • An approach in which environmental attributes are treated as objective rather than constraints, with minimum loss to product performance, useful life, and functionality.
  • Carnegie Mellon University, 1998.
slide6
Goals

1) Reducing or eliminating the use of toxic materials

2) Increase energy efficiency

3) Reducing the amount of material needed to perform the same function

4) Extending the life of a product.

green engineering
Green Engineering
  • Design, commercialization and use of processes and products, which are feasible and economical while minimizing

1) generation of pollution at source and

2) risk to humane health and environment.

  • US EPA OPPT (Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics)http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/greenengineering/
lc engineeirng
LC Engineeirng
  • A process to develop specifications to meet a set of performance, cost, and environmental requirements and goals that span the product, system, process, or facility life cycle.
  • Cooper & Vigon, “Life cycle engineering guidelines”, US EPA, ORD NRMRL, 2001
industrial ecology
Industrial Ecology
  • Industrial ecology is a new concept to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies.
  • Industrial system is viewed not isolation from the surrounding systems but in concert with them.
slide10
It seeks to optimize the total material cycle from virgin material to finished material, to component, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal.
  • Jelinski et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A., Vol.89, pp. 793~797, 1992.
slide11
LCA 선도 기관 및 사업

1. 국제환경경영표준 제시

ISO 14000; ISO

2. LCA 국제사회에 보급

Life Cycle Initiatives; UNEP & SETAC

3. LCA 연구개발 주도

Systems Analysis on LCA; USEPA,NRMRL

대학교 및 연구기관

4. ISO14000 인증 : 개별 인증기관 및 회사

5. LCA 활용 : 개별 기업 및 기관

slide12
UNEP : United Nations Environmental Programs

SETAC : Society of Environmental Toxicology And

Chemistry

USEPA : United States Environmental Protection

Agency

NRMRL : National Risk Management Research

Laboratory

ISO : International Standard Organization

iso 14000 international standards organization http www iso ch iso en isoonline openerpage
ISO 14000International Standards organization http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/ISOOnline.openerpage
iso 14000 family
ISO 14000 family
  • ISO 14000 : International Environmental Management Standards
  • ISO/TC 207 Environmental Management Technical Committee : 66개국 대표
  • ISO 9000 : Quality Management Standards (ISO/TC 176)
slide15
ISO 14001:1996 Environmental Management System
  • ISO 14040:1997 Environmental Management-LCA –Principles and framework
  • ISO 14043:2000 Environmental Management-LCA –LC Interpretation
slide16
ISO 인증 통계

ISO 14001전세계 일본 한국 국가

----------------------------------

Dec. 2002 49,462 10,620 1,065 118

Dec. 1997 4,433 713 174 55

ISO 9001전세계 일본 한국 국가

----------------------------------

Dec. 2002 561,747 33,964 14,520 159

Dec. 1997 223,299 6,487 5,806 126

Jan. 1993 27,816 27 48

slide17
국내 환경경영체제 인증 시스템
  • 한국인정원(Korea Accreditation Board) : 국내 품질 및 환경경영체제 인증기관 인정 및 인증심사원 선발,등록 관리업무를 함. http://www.kab.or.kr/
  • 인증기관 : 현행 환경경영체제 규격에 근거하여, 신청 조직을 심사하고 인증하는 제3자 : 2004년 1월 현재 24개 기관
slide18
연수기관 : 인증심사원 사전 교육 담당 (5박6일) : 2004년 1월 현재 2개 기관.
  • 인증심사원: ISO 8000 및 ISO14001 인정여부의 실질 심사를 39개 인증수행범위에 따라 담당함.
  • 환경경영시스템 심사원보 386명, 심사원 144명, 선임심사원 60명이 있으며, 품질경영시스템에는 각각 약 5배의 심사원들이 있음 (2003년 12월 기준).
life cycle initiatives unep setac http www uneptie org pc sustain lcinitiative
LIFE CYCLE INITIATIVESUNEP & SETAChttp://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/lcinitiative/
background
Background
  • LCInitiatives는 2000년 Malmo”선언, governments for life cycle economy,에 대한 응답임.
  • 2002년 Johannesburg의 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD)의 요청에 의해 ‘지탱가능한 생산과 소비 양식”을 고양하기 위하여 10년 규모의 프로그램으로 2002년 4월28일 시작함.
mission aims
Mission & Aims
  • To develop and disseminate practical tools for evaluating the opportunities, risks, and trade-offs associated with products and services over their entire life cycle to achieve sustainable development.
slide22
The programmes aim at putting Life cycle thinking (전과정 사고) into practice and at improving the supporting tools through better data and indicators.
objectives programmes
Objectives & Programmes

LC Management

1.Collect and disseminate information on successful application of life cycle thinking;

2.Share knowledge about the interface between LCA and other tools;

3.Identify best practice indicators and communication strategies for life cycle management;

slide24
LCA & LCM

4.Provide a basis for capacity building;

slide25
LC Inventory & LC Impact Assessment

5.Expand the availability of sound LCA data and methods;

6.Facilitate the use of life cycle based information and methods.

added values
Added Values
  • Providing reliable information in an accessible format;
  • Supporting good business practices;
  • Contributing to continuous improvement;
  • Preparing industries for better informed consumers;
  • Ensuring worldwide applicability and dissemination.
long term deliverables
Long Term Deliverables

LCT

  • Compilation of life cycle studies.
  • Training modules for SMEs and developing countries.

LCM

  • Integration of various existing tools and concepts.
  • Guidance for benchmarking in business practices.
  • Strategies for communication of LC information.
slide28
LCA
  • Information system to easy access for LCI.
  • Recommended available LCIA methods, models and factors.
  • Manuals for simplified tools and practical application.
systems analysis branch sab usepa nrmrl http www epa gov ord nrmrl std sab index html
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH (SAB) USEPA,NRMRLhttp://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/std/sab/index.html
mission
Mission
  • To develop and demonstrate cost-effective decision making tools for use by private and public sectors integrating environmental solutions, life cycle concepts, value engineering, environmental engineering, economics, trade-offs and pollution prevention factors.
research teams
Research Teams
  • Simulation & Design
  • Environmental Engineering Economics Program
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Impact Assessment & Measurement
  • Engineering Trade-Offs
  • Tools Integration for Sustainable Development
lca team objectives
LCA Team Objectives

1.Developing the conceptual model and methodology for conducting LCA (including efforts to make life cycle data more readily available to LCA practitioners);

slide33
2.Advancing the state-of the practice through various forums;

3.Employing LCA tools and techniques as support to environmental decision-makers in real world operations.

major projects of lca team
Major Projects of LCA Team
  • LCAccess: Making life cycle data available via the internet
  • Framework for responsible environmental decision-making (FRED) : Support EPP
  • Streaming LCA
universities environmental institutes dutch
Universities / Environmental Institutes, Dutch
  • Sense Research School
  • CML - Institute of Environmental Sciences
  • IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  • IVAM Environmental Research - University of Amsterdam
  • IVEM - Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen
  • Department of Science, Technology and Society - Utrecht University
  • Environmental System Analysis Group - Wageningen Agricultural University
  • INTERDUCT - Delft University Clean Technology Institute
  • CLM - Centre for Agriculture and Environment
  • CE - Centrum voor Energiebesparing en Schone Technologie
  • TNOTNO-STB - Strategy, Technology and Policy
  • TNO-MEP - Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation
  • TNO - Industry - Institute of Industrial Technology
  • NOVEM - Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu bv.
  • ECN - Netherlands Energy Research Foundation
  • NWO - The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
  • RMNO - Raad voor het Milieu- en Natuuronderzoek
  • EcoMarkt - internet platform voor groene producten en diensten
slide37
LCA
  • CML-IE - Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences
  • Update Guide & Backgrounds - Update of LCA methodology Guide & Backgrounds documents of 1992 by Heijungs et al.
  • SPOLD - the Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment Development
  • IPU The Institute for Product Development, Technical University of Denmark
  • Chalmers CPM - Competence Center in Environmental Assessment of Product and Material Systems, Chalmers University of Technology
  • US - EPA US Environmental Protection Agency LCAccess home page
  • The Green Design Initiative - of Carnegie Mellon University
  • Eiolca - An I/O based LCA Tool of the Green Design Initiative of Carnegie Mellon
  • IKP - Institut für Kunststoffprüfung und Kunststoffkunde, University of Stuttgart
  • IVL - The Swedish Environmental Research Institute
  • IVAM Environmental Research - University of Amsterdam
slide38
LCA
  • TNO-STB - Strategy, Technology and Policy
  • TNO-MEP - Institute of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation
  • TNO-Industry - Institute of Industrial Technology
  • ExternE - attempt to use a consistent 'bottom-up' methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a range of different fuel cycles (EC-JRC)
  • The Ecobilan Group
  • Pré Product Ecology Consultants
  • o2 - website for sustainable design, free ecodesign tools, interviews with eco-design experts, webreports of o2 events and much more
  • International Journal of LCA
  • LCAnet Food
  • Homepage Erik Alsema - Research on photovoltaic energy systems including LCAs
  • EcoMarket- European internet platform for green products and services
  • EcoSite - World Wide Resource on LCA
  • Tom Gloria - A comprehensive collection of LCA links by Tom Gloria
integrated assessment
Integrated assessment
  • Integrated Assessment - An International Journal
  • EFIEA - European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment, EU Concerted Action.
  • RAINS Europe - RAINS Europe Homepage at IIASA
data sources
Data sources
  • CBS - Statistics Netherlands
  • ECB - European Chemicals Bureau.
  • Statistischen Bundesamt Federal Statistical Office Germany
  • EUROSTAT Satistical Office of the European Communities
  • MilieuTotaal - Informatie over Milieu en Arbowetgeving met o.a. gegevens over stoffen zoals de hele MAC lijst online
  • Milieujaarverslag.com- Environmental Reports of Dutch Companies
  • enviroreporting.com- Environmental Reports of Companies around the world
  • RIVM - Milieubalans 2002 - Het Nederlandse milieu verklaard
  • UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook
  • Comprehensive database of pesticides common names, use, chemical formula, CAS-nr. etc
  • EPA Environmental Quality Status and Trends - EPA Environmental Quality Home Page
  • US - EPA US Environmental Protection Agency LCAccess home page
  • Resource Renewal Institute - with an environmental atlasa withinfo on many differnt countries
  • Harvard Environmental Resources On-Line
data sources1
Data sources
  • Hollandtrade - Information on the Netherlands foreign trade from the Ministry of Economic Affairs
  • DAIN - Metadatabase of Environmental Resources on the Web
  • WR96 - Tabel of Content of World Resources 1996
  • GINC - Global Information Network on Chemicals, a world wide information network for safe use of chemicals
  • ATSDR - the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
  • FMB - FMB Specialists in fertilizer market intelligence.
  • Henry's Law Constants (Solubilities)
  • SRC Datalog chemical search - search for a CAS number on the basis of the chemical name of a compound
  • SRC PhysProp Database - search for a physical propertiesof of a compound on teh basis of the CAS number
  • National Agricultural Statistics Service - search for data on US Agriculture
journals
Journals
  • Environmental Expert Magazines
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology
  • International Journal of LCA
  • Ecological Economics
  • Integrated Assessment
  • Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • MilieuOnline
  • Nature
  • Science
  • World Watch Magazine
  • Virtual Reading Room DOI Natural Resources Library, Links to online journals (US Deparment of the Interior)
  • ACS publications - Publications of the American Chemical Association
  • OneWorld Magazine
  • Conservation Ecology
  • BCN-A Collection of Online Environmental Journals and Newsletters
  • Earth Alert - Daily and weekly summaries of the Earth’natural history of the Discovery
sustainable cities
Sustainable Cities
  • Sustainable Cities Information System
  • EC DG XI - Sustainable Cities
  • UMS - EC Database on Good Practice in Urban Management and Sustainability
  • DG XI Response of the EC Expert group
  • ICLEI - The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
electronics the environment
Electronics & the Environment
  • CARE "VISION 2000" - a voluntary, international and environmental R&D network driven by the electronics industry based in Europe
  • Virtual Sector Guide - EPA's Virtual Sector Guide for the Electronics Industry
  • Homepage Erik Alsema - Research on photovoltaic energy systems including LCAs
  • The Green Design Initiative - of Carnegie Mellon University
  • Environmental Reporting Clearinghouse - a list of corporate environmental reporting websites
  • IISD - Business and Sustainable Development
  • Product Stewardship Advisor
  • List of Environmental Tools - of the Energy | Environment | Manfacturing group initiated by DOE/NIST/EPA
  • A Guide for basic info on Electronics
  • ECO QUEST for Electronics - an Ecodesign self-audit tool for suppliers of the electronic industry