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CHAPTER15 OUR LIVING PLANET. BY. Cody Crawford. 15-1 Climate Life. Climate- the temp. range, the average annual precipitation,humidity, and the amount of sunshine that a region typically experiences

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15 1 climate life
15-1 Climate Life
  • Climate- the temp. range, the average annual precipitation,humidity, and the amount of sunshine that a region typically experiences
  • Climate is a powerful factor in determining the types of living organisms that an area can support
  • Climate, such as temperature & rainfall, will allow populations to grow, remain stable, or vanish.
  • Temp. & rainfall can also affect the structure or food webs climate is the interaction or the sun’s energy with the Earth’s air, H2O, & land
earth s thermostat
Earth’s Thermostat
  • CO2 & H2O in the atmosphere allows solar energy to reach the Earth’s surface, where it is absorbed & later converted into heat
  • The earth’s atmosphere serves as a natural thermostat
  • These gases (CO2&H2O) keep the heat energy close to the Earth for a period of time this is called the GREEN HOUSE EFFECT.
earth s climate zone
Earth’s Climate Zone
  • Interactions between solar energy & the atmosphere are responsible for much more than the Earth’s temp.
  • Solar energy is responsible for global winds & ocean currents
environments ecosystems
Environments & Ecosystems
  • An environment is a combination of physical & biological factors that influence life
  • Physical factors(called abiotic factors)-climate, soil, and nutrients
  • Biological factors(biotic factors)- all of the living things with which an organism might interact.
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem- is a collection of organisms,producers,consumers,& decomposers- interacting with each other and with their physical environment & an ecosystem is a combination of biotic and abiotic factors
niche
Niche
  • Niche-a full range of physical & biological conditions in which the organisms in a species can live and the way in which the organisms use those conditions
habitat
Habitat
  • Habitat- the type of surroundings in which a species lives & thrives
15 2 environments life
15-2 Environments & Life
  • The biotic & the abiotic factors of an environment continually interact with and affect each other
  • These interactions as well as their capacity to change ecosystems usually operate slowly, over a long time scale
  • Ecosystems respond to change by undergoing more changes
change in ecosystems
Change In Ecosystems
  • Most ecosystems seem stable but many ecosystems are constantly changing because organisms alter their surroundings
  • As an ecological system changes, older inhabitants gradually die out & new plants & animals move in
ecological succession
Ecological Succession
  • Rakata island(Indonesia) was created by a violent volcanic eruption that destroyed the larger island or Krakatoa in 1883
  • At first only mosses,fungi,& grasses were able to grow on the newly cooled lava rock
  • Over time, these organisms causes the rock to break down, producing a thin layer or soil
  • Some plants & eventually trees were able to grow in this soil; animals soon flew,swam,or drifted to the island; within 100 years, the island turned into a tropical rainforest
ecological succession12
Ecological Succession
  • Ecological Succession- the process by which an existing ecosystem is gradually and progressively reproduced by another ecosystem
  • Humans can cause Ecological Succession EX)abandoned clear cut fields
climax community
Climax Community
  • The relatively stable collection of plants & animals that results when an ecosystem reaches such a state
  • EX)natural disasters(floods,fires,etc) can alter ecosystem causing ecological succession thus producing a climax community
15 3 earth s biomes
6 Terrestial Biomes

Tundra

Tropical rain forest

Desert

Grassland

Temperate deciduous forest

Taiga

4 Aquatic Biomes

Open water

Fresh water

Estuaries(river joins the sea)

Rocky inter tidal

3% of all H2O on Earth is fresh, 98% is frozen

15-3 Earth’s Biomes
climate a complete story
Climate: A Complete story
  • Global climate patterns are causes by the actions of winds and oceans currents
  • Winds & ocean currents are in turn powered by solar energy
winds
Winds
  • Since the Earth’s surface is curved, different parts of the surface receive different amounts of solar energy
  • Near the equator, solar energy is more concentrated than it is in the north/south poles
  • A result is that the surface of the Earth is warmer at the equator tat at the poles
  • Warm air rises,cool air sinks there are three large circuit of rising/falling air on each side of the equator.
winds continued
Winds Continued
  • As the Earth rotates on its axis, the air flows move east or west
  • The surface air flows are called trade winds
ocean currents
Ocean Currents
  • Oceans experience more solar heating at the equator
  • Warmer H2O at the ocean surface moves from the equator toward the cooler H2O at the pole
  • Cold H2O near the poles sink to the bottom & travel towards the equator
  • Again, the Earth’s climate is caused by the interaction or air & H2O currents w/ the earths land masses
  • As warm air moves over warm H2O, it picks up moisture in the form of H2O vapor
ocean currents continued
Ocean Currents Continued
  • If the warm,moisture air rises & later cools, the H2O vapor condenses& falls to Earth
the climate controversy
The Climate Controversy
  • The enhanced greenhouse effect-refers to the fact that human activities are adding green house gases to the atmosphere; CO2 & gases are being added to the atmosphere causing the Earth to retain more heat
global warming
Global Warming
  • When the enhanced greenhouse effect issued to predict rise in Earth’s average temperature, the prediction is called global warming :1degree-2 degrees Celsius increase bye 2050
  • Climate change includes any significant change in patterns of temp.
  • Rainfall,humidity,storm activity,&cloud formation that occurs in any part of the world
  • Temp. is only one factor affecting climate
possible effects of global warming
Possible Effects Of Global Warming
  • Melting of polar ice caps
  • Rising sea levels
  • Flooding
  • Influence air/H2O flows
  • Decline of zoo plankton (tiny marine organism that are part of marine food chains)
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