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Evolution of Photogrammetry. Thomas Koch. Photogrammetry Today. A broader variety of applications require geospatial data. Acquisition Processing Analysis Data hosting. Needs to specialize!. Data Acquisition.

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Presentation Transcript
photogrammetry today
Photogrammetry Today
  • A broader variety of applications require geospatial data
  • Acquisition
  • Processing
  • Analysis
  • Data hosting

Needs to specialize!

data acquisition
Data Acquisition
  • The application defines the best suited acquisition method and processing routines
    • Data availability, time for preparation, processing, scale, precision, area size





  • How much photogrammetric expertise can we expect for a specific application?
  • Ease of use vs. advanced processing (flexibility)
  • Less interactive possibilities vs. more interactive options to ensure success on more challenging projects
  • Expert quality assurance required?
  • Less expertise vs. more expertise required








challenge for software development
Challenge for software development
  • How to ensure precision, proof with “low expertise” software?
    • Application specifies the target precision level and complexity
    • Highest accuracy, reliability requires expertise!
    • We need: More automation, easier workflows with “expert” mode/tools
how to address data volumes
How to address data volumes

Storage capacity

  • Dense point clouds
  • High resolution orthos
  • ...
  • How to store/host massive data
  • How to share and distribute


Intermediate data

Local / Web

Web data hosting

Web Service

Web data hosting

Web Store / Download

Local data hosting

Web Service

Local data hosting

Local Web Store

Local Software

Sending Data

effects on software development
Effects on Software Development
  • Web applications
  • Computer evolution (memory, CPUs, Clusters...)
  • Demand for complete “vertical” solutions
  • “connected devices” (mobile, desktop...)
  • Combining all data from different sources
software needs to specialize
Software needs to specialize
  • According to input data
    • UAS (large or small)
    • Aerial Frame
    • Pushbroom
    • Satellite
    • LiDAR
    • Survey
software needs to specialize1
Software needs to specialize
  • According to Application to provide most suitable and smooth workflow
    • “vertical” market requirements


Area Size, Scale

Ease of Use


Expert Level

Precision Level

necessary technical changes
Necessary Technical Changes
  • Cameras
    • Lower geometric quality / stability
    • Higher resolution
    • Radiometry
    • Spectral (e.g. thermal)
    • Correction methods
  • Matching Techniques
  • Automated analysis workflows (eCognition)
  • Web-Services
inpho technical evolution
Inpho technical evolution
  • How high resolution cameras affect earth curvature corrections
    • “traditional” way (ASPRS manual of photogrammetry) proposes a simplified formula e.g. with consideration of a mean terrain height per image, only
    • Revised formula implemented in INPHO ( see K. Krauss Band2 3rd Edition ) considers individual height values

Traditional way proved to be accurate enough while resolution of cameras was still coarser! Corrections would have been about 1/10 pixel

For high resolution cameras, difference gets significant! Corrections range up to about 1 pixel

* A lot of software is not taking care of that fact!

evolution of algorithms
Evolution of algorithms
  • The right algorithm for the right input
    • Different characteristics of input data
    • Different requirements for deliverables
    • Why is specialized software so important? Example UASMaster:

Trad. Photogr.






  • Characteristics:
  • Lower geometric quality of cameras,
  • Lower quality of approximations
  • Larger orientation angles
  • Lower image quality (smears, motion blur...)
  • Larger image scale (perspectives)
  • Robustness over speed
  • Characteristics:
  • high geometric quality of cameras,
  • high quality of approximations
  • small orientation angles
  • Good image quality
  • Smaller scale
  • Speed over robustnes


Less robust


Very accurate


Most robust

Very slow


uasmaster is different
UASMaster is different
  • Fully automatic one-stop solution (AT/georeferencing, cameracalibration, DTM/DSM, trueortho or traditional orthomosaic)
  • Optional break-points and parametrization
  • Addtional QA/QC
  • Full stereovisualization and more manual/automated editing capability
  • Complete INPHO in one tool, limited to UAS data
  • Based on adapted and now even more advanced INPHO core algorithms




Level of expertise

example quality editing uasmaster
Example: Quality Editing (UASMaster)
  • Georeferencing refinements
  • Automated / manual DTM/DSM/Ortho editing
evolution of data density and quality
Evolution of data density and quality
  • Quality improvements for dense matching (point clouds)
  • comparison
evolution into space
Evolution into space
  • Satellite triangulation capability in MATCH-AT
    • Drivers:
      • quick acquisition for huge areas
      • Surveying hazardous areas
      • Surveying areas that are hard to access
    • Key to success:
      • Full automation (e.g. tie point measurements)
      • Rigorous quality assessment and refinement options
      • Accurate and reliable georeference
      • Seamless workflow to follow-up tasks (DTM/DSM, Ortho...feature extraction)
evolution of format variety
Evolution of format variety
  • Driver
    • Variety of applications
    • Variety of software solutions
    • Variety of acquisition methods
    • Recent additions:

Trimble Geoids


Camera Conversion

LAS compression


Multi-IMU support


JPEG 2000

Additional transformations / projections

evolution of tools and workflows
Evolution of tools and workflows
  • Keep it simple
    • Reduce complexity
  • All georeferencing in ONE tool
    • Frame imagery
    • Pushbroom imagery
    • Satellite imagery
evolution of tools and workflows1
Evolution of tools and workflows

Automatic correlation based

terrain following for 3D measurements

High performance point cloud visualisation

Polygon Checks

More effective batch conversions, editing, deliverable creation for point clouds in DTMaster

evolution of workflows
Evolution of workflows
  • More automation
    • E.g. automatic flight line adjustment for LiDAR strips