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Katine Community Partnerships Project Conceptual Framework Friday 25 th September.
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Friday 25th September
What we are hoping the project will achieve: Poverty reduction, better health, access to education, increased income and a role in decision making are all inter-related. In order to improve the lives of those living in Katine we will deliver an integrated project, working to support the community in all these areas. At the highest level the project has been designed with 5 goals in mind:
Improved community health
Improved access to quality primary education
Improved access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene
Improved income generating activities
Communities empowered to engage in local governance
By encouraging development in all these areas the project will change the lives of those living in Katine, but not just for the three years that the project is active. By empowering the community to engage in local governance, and providing them with knowledge around health, hygiene, safe water and agriculture, as well as improving the quality of education available to young people in Katine, this project can bring lasting change.
How we are going to approach this: AMREF works with the poorest and most vulnerable people in Africa, therefore our interventions mirror this approach. The project will target those who will benefit from the project the most. In healthcare this means prioritising PLWHA, CU5,women and young people. In education we work to target gender imbalances, as well as working to ensure that those with disabilities can access schooling.
This project will be implemented through community partnering; that means the project team will work with members of the community throughout the development, planning and implementation process. By working with Farmers’ Groups, VHTs, PTAs, and by establishing community committees, for example Water Source Committees, community members will be at the centre of their own development, and have a key stake in decision making. The project will therefore be responsive to community needs and priorities, and through community participation the interventions will be owned by the community, so that many developments can continue beyond the 3 year lifespan of the project.
This project will build the capacity of these community organisations, and the local Government (at District, Sub-County and parish level) to manage their own development. This will be done by improving the gathering and use of community based information – for example, supporting health centres to monitor levels of essential medicines, providing the Sub-County with planning and budgeting training, and encouraging community management of primary schools. Across these groups the project will work to develop the skills of both formal workers (teachers, health workers, Government employees) and the community volunteers who are delivering essential services to the community, for example the village health teams. AMREF believes that in order for development to succeed the gap between communities and Government needs to be closed. Therefore this project will work with local government structures to support them to work with Katine. This project will strengthen and further develop AMREF’s model for community based development.
KATINE COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS PROJECT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Improved quality of health systems and services
Improved rural health systems
OBJECTIVE 1: IMPROVED COMMUNITY HEALTH
Examples of Indicators
10 preventable diseases cause 75% of premature deaths. The most significant are peri-natal and maternal conditions, malaria, acute respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoea which account for 60% of the disease burden in Uganda.
There is poor quality and utilization of prevention, treatment and care services due to lack of funds, lack of and uneven distribution of human resources, poor management and systems, lack of medical equipment, inadequate and interrupted supplies of medicines and other supplies.
Rural areas have worst health indicators and greater inequalities in access to basic health services and safe water and sanitation. Cost and distance to health facilities prevent many people from seeking care.
MOH priority focus is to operationalise health sub districts and village health teams to achieve more effective and equitable delivery of cost-effective interventions.
Lack of appropriate knowledge and behaviours, with underlying social and economic factors, contribute to poor health status. And there is low community awareness and participation in political and planning process for health services and other basic services.
Improved community-based prevention, care and treatment
Increased community awareness of, access to and utilisation of health services in community and health facilities
OBJECTIVE 2: IMPROVED ACCESS TO QUALITY PRIMARY EDUCATION
Examples of Indicators
There are fourteen primary schools and one secondary school in Katine Sub-County.
School drop-out rates are high averaging 19% for boys and 22% for girls because parents need children to help with income generation. Only 3.9% of current pupils in Katine Sub-County are in P7. Out of a total of 67 parishes across the district 3 Katine parishes come in the bottom 4 parishes for progression to P7.
16% of the children of primary school age in Katine are orphans and vulnerable children. This group is less likely to receive a comprehensive education.
Classrooms are overcrowded with a pupil:classroom ratio of 91. Only 47% of the pupils in Katine have seats. Schools lack basic facilities such as access to safe water and latrines. Only 37% of the need for latrines is met in Katine Sub-County.
The repetition rate for pupils is 23%. Teacher are often de-motivated and absenteeism is high. Schools lack effective teaching materials and the linkage of schools to Sub-County accountability level is weak.
Improve teaching and learning environment
Improved access to quality primary education for all children and greater community involvement in school governance
Promote inclusive education
Strengthen community ownership over school supervision
OBJECTIVE 3: IMPROVED ACCESS TO SAFE WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE
Examples of Indicators
There are 30 boreholes in Katine Sub-County of which 8 required rehabilitation at last survey. There are approximately 20 shallow wells and protected springs. These serve more than 24,000 people. 18 villages were identified as having no water sources at all.
Water sources are not maintained consistently and community members are often forced to use unsafe water for lack of an alternative or because the cost of safe water is prohibitively expensive.
Many schools do not have easy access to safe water and lack sanitation facilities. Two schools have been identified as having an acute water shortage and sanitation facilities are poor. Ojago Primary School has 394 pupils and just one pit latrine of 2 stances.
Latrine coverage averages 48% across the Sub-County though Ojom and Olwelai parishes only have 24% coverage.
As a result of poor sanitation and low levels of hygiene there is a high incidence of diarrhoea and other water-borne-diseases.
Increased access to safe water
Increased community access to and utilisation of improved water and sanitation facilities
Improved hygiene practices in households
Improved operations and maintenance of water sources
Increased access to basic
sanitation and improved hygiene
empowerment to manage water
OBJECTIVE 4: IMPROVED INCOME GENERATING OPPORTUNITIES
Examples of Indicators
Katine sub-county has experienced repeated cycles of conflict over the past 20 years which have eroded the asset base of rural communities. Rural livelihoods are currently still recovering from the most recent LRA incursion in 2003.
Farmers have gained access to some new varieties of crops & livestock; lack support to build the management capacity of their groups; have no linkage with research institutions to test new varieties through on-farm trials and have very limited formal access to veterinary services. The current system of farmer groups is seen by non-members as selective and exclusive.
Recent upheaval and displacement has eroded organised access to markets. Farmers’ linkage to other districts is usually through middlemen who negotiate with individual farmers to drive product prices down. Farmers generally do not collectively market, store to get the best price or add value through processing and lack capacity and knowledge to put these key value addition processes in place.
Climate change has made rainy seasons less predictable Farmers need to adapt to these changes through access to new crop varieties, environmental management & other livelihoods support.
Valuable support has been provided through both the NAADS programme and NGO interventions, especially to assist those most affected by conflict to resume productive agriculture. But there is no formal information exchange mechanism to ensure that efforts by different agencies are better coordinated, share valuable experience or even jointly plan and support certain interventions
Enhance the capacity of rural community-based organisations
Improve coordination of rural livelihood support
Recovery in livelihoods
Strengthened ability of rural institutions to
access both advisory services and markets for their products
Increase productivity of crop & livestock production
Improve access to and returns from markets & marketing
Increase capacity to manage & mitigate
impact of environmental changes
OBJECTIVE 5: COMMUNITIES EMPOWERED TO ENGAGE IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE
Examples of Indicators
Decentralisation of basic services in Uganda is stuck at the district level and is yet to make a dent in the improvement to the lives of 75% of people living below the $1 a day poverty line in rural areas.
There is a disconnect between formal structures and systems and community needs and priorities. This manifests itself as a lack of participation of the vulnerable in setting priorities and deciding on resource allocation.
Whilst most national government policies emphasise the role of community participation in sustainable development there are no commensurate resources and programmes to ensure that communities are fully empowered to own their own development processes.
A poor information base at the community level hampers effective prioritisation and planning and pro-poor resource allocations by the formal system at district and national levels.
Increased community awareness and participation in obtaining basic services
Increased community capacity to plan and budget for community needs
Strengthen community capacity for data gathering and utilisation
Strengthened local governance
Enhance community planning to better meet community needs
GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
ANC Antenatal Care
ART Anti Retroviral Therapy
CASHE Community-based Approach to Sanitation and Hygiene Education
CB-DOTS Community-based Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (for TB)
CMD Community Medicine Distributor
ECOSAN Ecological sanitation (a type of latrine)
EMOC Emergency Obstetric Care
EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization
FP Family Planning
HCIV Health Centre IV (District level health centre)
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HOMAPAK Anti-malarial drug - chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (administered to children between 2 months and 5 yrs old)
HSD Health sub-district
IEC Information, Education, Communication (material)
IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illness
IPT Intermittent preventive treatment (for malaria)
ITN Insecticide-treated Net
MOH Ministry of Health
PLWA People living with AIDS
PLWHA People living with HIV/AIDS
PMTCT Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission
P7 Last year of primary school
PTA Parent Teacher Association
PVC Polyvinyl chloride (Plastic)
SRH Sexual Reproductive Health
STI Sexually Transmitted Infection
TBA Traditional birth attendant
CU5 Children Under-five-years old
VHT Village health team