American Indian Education: Deloria“The goal of Indian education has not been education. Indian education has been oriented toward performing other peripheral tasks of a political and economic nature” (p. 165). Stages of Indian Education Assimilation Pluralism (still with paternalism) Self-Determination
Assimilation A fundamental consideration behind school policy was the transfer of Indian real estate to white hands.Colonial education for Indian people designed to “condition Indian people to surrender tribally-controlled lands and accept individual land allotments” (Lomawaima 2002 p. 430) After 1887 General Allotment Act, a majority of students were property owners. Tom Torlino (Navajo) as he appeared upon arrival to the Carlisle Indian School, October 21, 1882. http://home.epix.net/~landis/main.html Tom Torlino (Navajo) three years later http://home.epix.net/~landis/main.html
Apache children on arrival at the Carlisle Indian School (Pennsylvania) http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/jpegs/phoenix4.jpeg Apache children at the Carlisle School four months later.http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/jpegs/phoenix5.jpeg The Contrast Picture – From Primitive to Civilized Assimilationist desires Contrast Picture tied to Boarding School Experience
Student body assembled on the Carlisle Indian School Grounds.Photo courtesy of Carlisle-www.army.mil Richard Henry Pratt established Carlisle (Pennsylvania) in 1879. Between 1880 and 1902, 25 off-reservation boarding schools were built and 20,000 to 30,000 Native American children went through the system. That was roughly 10 percent of the total Indian population in 1900.
Carlisle Indian Industrial School (1879 - 1918) Richard Henry Pratt spent eight years (1867-1875) in Indian Territory as an officer of the 10th Cavalry, commanding a unit of African American "Buffalo Soldiers" and Indian Scouts. During this time, he was stationed at Ft. Sill, OK, 60 miles east of the site of the Battle of the Washita where Black Kettle (Cheyenne) was killed in 1867. Frustrated by unsuccessful attempts to 'bring in' the most recalcitrant of the 'hostiles', the United States instituted a plan to incarcerate them. 1875-1886 Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo Nations, were rounded up for exile to Fort Marion, Florida. Pratt jailor “Take Indian children from the reservations, remove them to a school far away from tribal influences, and transform them.” 1879, Pratt had secured permission of the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of the War Department McCrary to use a deserted military base as the site of his school. Carlisle Barrack, Pennsylvania. www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/pa/cumberland/zeamer/
Pratt was driven by his strong desire to see the Indian become an imitation of the white man. This article from the March 18, 1898 school newspaper, the "Indian Helper" embodies Pratt's assimilationist philosophy. The author of the letter evidently has the idea of Indians that Buffalo Bill and other showmen keep alive, by hiring the reservation wild man to dress in his most hideous costume of feathers, paint, moccasins, blanket, leggins, and scalp lock, and to display his savagery, by hair lifting war-whoops make those who pay to see him, think he is a blood-thirsty creature ready to devour people alive. It is this nature in our red brother that is better dead than alive, and when we agree with the oft-repeated sentiment that the only good Indian is a dead one, we mean this characteristic of the Indian. Carlisle's mission is to kill THIS Indian, as we build up the better man. We give the rising Indian something nobler and higher to think about and do, and he comes out a young man with the ambitions and aspirations of his more favored white brother. We do not like to keep alive the stories of his past, hence deal more with his present and his future." Pratt is often quoted as saying "Kill the Indian, save the man". Of the 10,000+ Indian children who attended the Carlisle school over its 39 year life span, most returned to the reservation.
Marshall decision 1832 Though the Indians are acknowledged to have an unquestionable and, heretofore, unquestioned right to the lands they occupy until that right shall be extinguished by a voluntary cession to our government, yet it may well be doubted whether those tribes which reside within the acknowledged boundaries of the United States can, with strict accuracy, be denominated foreign nations. They may more correctly, perhaps, be denominated domestic dependent nations. They occupy a territory to which we assert a title independent of their will, which must take effect in point of possession when their right of possession ceases. Meanwhile, they are in a state of pupilage. Their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. http://www.vlib.us/amdocs/texts/cherokee.htm Chief Justice Marshall of the US. In office 1801-1835 Marshall decision 1832 “domestic dependent nation, ward to guardian
General Allotment Act of 1887 Also known as the Dawes Act Dawes Act authorized the President of the US to survey Indian tribal land and divide the area into allotments for the individual Indian. Dawes strongly believed that the ownership of land was an important process in persuading people to accept the laws of the government. He therefore suggested that Native Americans should be granted land in exchange for renouncing tribal allegiances. Under the terms of this legislation family heads received one hundred acres, and each dependent child 40 acres. This land was held in trust for 25 years, at the end of which time the holder was to acquire full title with the right to sell. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk Senator Dawes Massachusetts, 1875-1893 en.wikipedia.org/wik
The practical effect of the Dawes Act fundamentally changed the way Indians dealt with their land base and it eventually removed much of the land from their reservations through private sales or outright confiscation. "Surplus" land was then sold off. The result was Native Americans often found it impossible to make a living, and so began selling their allotments to land-hungry farmers and ranchers. In 1881, Indians held more than 155 million acres. By 1890, they held 104 million acres. By 1900, 77 million acres. www.uwec.edu/geography/Ivogeler/w188/usind.gif
Social and legal definitions of native status • Are tribes nations or wards? (Marshall decision 1832 “domestic dependent nation, ward to guardian) • Indian parents, classified as children were denied rights of choice in their children’s education • Diminishment of economic and social opportunities for Native students • Allotment Act of 1887 meshed with alienation of Native corporate land holdings • Challenges of placing Native alumni on the job market • Preparation for Indians as domestics and laborers Ziewie, four months after her arrivalat Hampton.(Hampton Archives)http://www.twofrog.com/hampton.htm Ziewie, a fifteen year old Sioux girlfrom Crow Creek Agency arrivedat Hampton in 1878.
Assimilation to Pluralism, 1887-1934 • The Office of Indian Affairs was established March 11, 1824, as an office of the Unites States Department of War. It became responsible for negotiating and holding fulfillment, at least on the Native American part, of treaties. In 1849 the bureau was transferred to the Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs re-named Bureau of Indian Affairs as of 1947) • General Allotment Act of 1887 (Dawes Act) Native lands privatized, tribes forced into a capitalistic legal system • Indian Citizenship, 1924 • The Meriam Report, 1928 “The Problem of Indian Administration” • Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Roosevelt’s New Deal), Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 formally ended allotment. Pluralist approach.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934Indian New Deal As a proponent of cultural pluralism and repeal of the Dawes Act, Collier directly attacked the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Prior to Collier, criticism of the Bureau was directed at corrupt and incompetent officials and not the actual policies implemented. For the next decade Collier fought against legislation and policies that were detrimental to the well-being of Native Americans. Collier's efforts led to a monumental study in 1926-1927 of the overall condition of Indians in the United States. The results of the study became known as the Meriam Report. Published in 1928 as The Problem of Indian Administration the report revealed failures of federal Indian policies and how they had contributed to severe problems with Indian education, health, and poverty. SEE: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5058/ John Collier (1884-1968) mssa.library.yale.edu/.../146/thumb/006248.jpg
Meriam Report 1928 “be absorbed into the prevailing civilization or be fitted to live in the presence of that civilization” Collier (IRA 1934) paternalistic New Deal Policy – new idea – schools serve needs of Indian students – wedded to old idea – federal policy-makers defined those needs Day schools/off reservation boarding schools only option available for Indian students Threat that a high school degree might enable access to higher education and economic development “Remain an Indian as long as they remained on their reservation land and did not compete for jobs” Carlisle Indian School, ca. 1900.Frances Benjamin Johnston photoCourtesy Cumberland County Historical Societyhttp://home.epix.net/~landis/primary.html
Methodological boundaries expanded Examples: Tsianina Lomawaima “They Called it Prarie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School” Kikapoo Nation Film “Another Wind is Moving” (E97.5.A561 1985) Carlisle Indian School: http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html Oral history accounts Indian autobiographical accounts Documentary records (letters of Indian students and parents) Policy, practice, student experience
Self-Determination (See Burden of Indian Education Deloria pp. 176-185 • Indian Education Act of 1972 • Grants to local Education Agencies • Improvement of educational opportunities – curricula, teacher training, fellowships, • grants for adult education, employment opportunities • Indian Self-Determination and educational Assistance Act 1975 • Federal government contracted services out to individual tribes for administration of schools • Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978 http://www.tribalcollegejournal.org Deloria - “Indian Education was never really conceived as the education of Indians using the strengths of Indian culture or tradition.” Most programs derived from national programs, Indians seen as the most needy of American minority groups (p. 182)
Discussion Points • Pan-Tribal Identities - “Indianness Beyond Tribalness” (Strickland interviewed in “Another Wind is Moving” • Evidence of Resilience • What is Traditional Education? (Medicine, Deloria) • Victimhood or agency? – Why go? Why did parents send children?