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# Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter Menu. Lesson 1: Determining Position Lesson 2: Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration Lesson 3: Graphing Motion. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. 1.1 Determining Position. reference point vector displacement. 1.1 Determining Position.

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Lesson 1:Determining Position

Lesson 2:Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Lesson 3:Graphing Motion

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.

1.1 Determining Position

reference point

vector

displacement

1.1 Determining Position

Position and Reference Points
• Position is defined relative to a reference point and reference directions.

1.1 Determining Position

Position and Reference Points (cont.)
• Three things must be included:
• A reference point, or starting point used to describe the position of another object
• A reference direction that describes which way to move in relation to the reference object
• A distance from the reference point

1.1 Determining Position

Position and Reference Points (cont.)
• The flagpole can be used as a reference point for finding the bicycle.

1.1 Determining Position

Describing the Reference Direction
• A plus sign (+) indicates movement in the direction of the reference point.
• A minus sign (–) indicates movement in the direction opposite of the reference point.
• The description of an object’s motion also depends on the reference point chosen.

1.1 Determining Position

Position as a Vector
• A vector is a quantity in which two things must be specified:
• Distance from the reference point
• Direction from the reference point

1.1 Determining Position

Positions in Two Dimensions
• Objects that do not move in straight lines require two reference directions.
• A car traveling from San Diego to Sacramento doesn’t move in a straight line.

1.1 Determining Position

Showing Positions with Two Directions
• In this map of a city, the art museum is located 360m west and 90m south of the bus station.

1.1 Determining Position

Changing Position
• The change in an object’s position is called its displacement.
• Displacement is the difference between a starting point and a finishing point.
• Displacement includes a size and a direction.
• Displacement is a vector.

1.1 Determining Position

Changing Position (cont.)
• Direction of displacement is the direction from starting point to end point.
• Size of displacement is the distance from the starting point to the ending point.

1.1 Determining Position

Lesson 1 Review

Displacement is a(n) ____ because it has both size and direction.

A speed

B velocity

C vector

D acceleration

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.1 Determining Position

Lesson 1 Review

Position is defined relative to ____.

A a reference point and a vector

B displacement and reference directions

C a vector and reference directions

D a reference point and reference directions

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.1 Determining Position

Lesson 1 Review

Which of the following statements is true?

A Displacement and distance traveled are always the same.

B Displacement and distance traveled are never the same.

CDistance traveled is the direction of the of the displacement vector.

DDisplacement and distance traveled are the same if the direction does not change.

• A
• B
• C
• D
1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

speed

constant speed

instantaneous speed

average speed

velocity

acceleration

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Speed
• Speed, velocity, and acceleration describe how an object’s position and motion change through time.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Speed (cont.)
• Rates measure change in something over a length of time.
• Speed is the rate of change of distance over time.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Constant Speed
• An object moving at constant speed travels the same distance each second.
• This hurdler is moving at a constant speed of 5m/second.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Changing Speed
• A car driving in town must slow down and speed up, therefore its speed is not constant.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Changing Speed (cont.)
• The car’s speed at any given time is called its instantaneous speed.
• An object moving at a constant speed has the same instantaneous speed at all times.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Average Speed
• Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time.
• If you know any 2 of the variables, you can calculate the missing variable.

What is the relationship between distance, average speed, and time?

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Velocity
• Velocity is the speed and direction of a moving object.
• Speed is the rate of change of distance with time.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Velocity (cont.)
• Velocity is a vector because it has both direction and size.
• The size of a velocity vector is the speed.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Acceleration
• Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes with time.

Acceleration

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Acceleration (cont.)
• The horses on the carousel are constantly accelerating and changing direction, so they are constantly changing velocity even though their speed remains constant.

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Lesson 2 Review

Acceleration is the rate of change of ____.

A velocity

B speed

C time

D direction

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Lesson 2 Review

A car stopping at a red light is and example of a(n) ____.

A displacement

B acceleration

C direction

D velocity

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.2 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration

Lesson 2 Review

It takes a runner 42.1 s to run a distance of 150 m. What is the runner’s average speed?

A 0.28 m/s

B 3.56 m/s

C1.75 m/s

D6.31 m/s

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.3 Graphing Motion

Graphs
• Graphs can show how objects change position or speed.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Position-Time Graphs
• Graphs often show how something changes with time.
• This graph shows how temperature changes with time in Santa Barbara, California.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Making a Position-Time Graph
• This table shows how far a turtle has moved after an amount of time.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Making a Position-Time Graph (cont.)
• Plotting the time on the x-axis and plotting the distance the turtle has moved on the y-axis creates the graph.
• You can draw a line through the points and use it to estimate the turtle’s position at a given time.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Units on Position-Time Graphs
• Each number has units associated with it.
• Position has units of length like cm, m, or km.
• Seconds, minutes, and days are units of time.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Slope of a Position-Time Graph
• The steepness of a line on a graph is called the slope.
• The steeper the slope, the faster the object is traveling.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Slope of a Position-Time Graph (cont.)
• On a position-time graph, a steeper line means a greater average speed.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Calculating Slope from a Position-Time Graph
• To find the slope of a line, the origin and another point are used to calculate the rise and the run.

rise

run

slope =

1.3 Graphing Motion

Calculating Slope from a Position-Time Graph (cont.)
• Rise is the change in vertical direction.
• Run is the change in horizontal direction.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Slope and Average Speed
• Average speed is the total distance divided by the total time elapse to travel that distance.
• Rise is equal to the distance traveled.
• Run is equal to the time elapsed needed to travel that distance.
• Average speed is equal to the slope of the line on a position-time graph.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Position-Time Graphs for Changing Speed
• Only objects with a constant speed will have position-time graphs with a straight line.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Position-Time Graphs for Changing Speed (cont.)
• To find the average speed of the entire trip, use the starting and ending points.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Position-Time Graphs for Changing Speed (cont.)
• Then calculate the slope of the line that would connect those points.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Speed-Time Graphs
• Graphing instantaneous speed of an object shows how the speed of an object changes with time.
• Constant speed on a speed-time graph is a horizontal line because the speed does not change.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Speed-Time Graphs (cont.)
• If an object speeds up, the plotted line slants up towards the right.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Speed-Time Graphs (cont.)
• If an object slows down, the plotted line slants down towards the right.

1.3 Graphing Motion

Speed-Time Graphs (cont.)

Position-Time and Speed-Time Graphs

Part APart B

1.3 Graphing Motion

Lesson 3 Review

The horizontal change on a graph is also called the ____.

A rise

B elevation

C run

D distance

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.3 Graphing Motion

Lesson 3 Review

The steepness of a line on a graph is called the ____.

A slope

B hill

C rise

D run

• A
• B
• C
• D

1.3 Graphing Motion

Lesson 3 Review

If the rise is equal to 75 m and the run is equal to 2.5 m, then what is the slope?

A 187.5 m

B 12 m

C 30 m

D 0.03 cm

• A
• B
• C
• D

Chapter Assessment

California Standards Practice

Concepts in Motion

Image Bank

Science Online

Interactive Table

Virtual Lab

BrainPOP

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

Chapter Assessment 1

A runner traveling at 5 m/s will cover what distance in 3 min?

A 900 m

B 90 m

C 9 m

D none of the above

• A
• B
• C
• D
Chapter Assessment 2

If a car travels 10 km in 5 min, stops for 2 min, and then travels 4 km in 3 min, what is the average speed of the car?

A 14 km/h

B 14 km/min

C 1.4 km/min

D 1.4 km/h

• A
• B
• C
• D
Chapter Assessment 3

Cars on an oval race track are accelerating because ____.

A they are changing direction

B their displacement is zero

C all of the above

D none of the above

• A
• B
• C
• D
Chapter Assessment 4

If an object increases its speed, then it is ____.

A changing velocity

B changing direction

C changing the reference direction

D none of the above

• A
• B
• C
• D
Chapter Assessment 5

Describe a position-time graph of an object moving at 10 km/h.

A upward slant to the right

B horizontal line

C upward slant to the left

D none of the above

• A
• B
• C
• D

SCI 1.a

CA Standards Practice 1

What must you have to determine a position?

A acceleration

B velocity and speed

C reference point and origin

D reference point and reference direction

• A
• B
• C
• D
CA Standards Practice 2

SCI 1.b

Which of the following is the rate of change in distance divided by time?

A vector

B displacement

C instantaneous speed

D average speed

• A
• B
• C
• D
CA Standards Practice 3

SCI 1.c

If a car travels 45 km in half an hour, what is the average speed of the car?

A 45 km/h

B 45 km/min

C 90 km/h

D 90 m/s

• A
• B
• C
• D
CA Standards Practice 4

SCI 1.d

Velocity has both ____ and ____.

A size; magnitude

B size; speed

C speed; direction

D direction; origin

• A
• B
• C
• D
CA Standards Practice 5

SCI 1.e

What occurs when an object accelerates?

A It speeds up.

B It slows down.

C It changes direction.

D all of the above

• A
• B
• C
• D
Interactive Table

Position-Time and Speed-Time Graphs

Part APart B