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Data on International Migration and the Foreign-Born Population from the U.S. Census Bureau. Elizabeth M. Grieco Chief, Immigration Statistics Staff Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau Finding and Using the Best Immigration Data Resources: A Seminar on Immigration Statistics

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Data on International Migration and the Foreign-Born Population from the U.S. Census Bureau


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    1. Data on International Migration and theForeign-Born Population from the U.S. Census Bureau Elizabeth M. Grieco Chief, Immigration Statistics Staff Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau Finding and Using the Best Immigration Data Resources: A Seminar on Immigration Statistics Migration Policy Institute and Population Reference Bureau October 16, 2008

    2. Purpose of Presentation • Review some basic migration terms: • Immigrant, native, and foreign born • Flow vs. stock data • Census vs. survey data • Discuss the available data sources on: • Immigration/migrants (events/flows) • Foreign born (population) • Review several major Census Bureau data sources • Decennial Census • American Community Survey (ACS) • Other sources of survey data 2

    3. Things to Consider Before Looking for Data… • What do you want to know? • What data source, type of data would tell you what you want to know? • Where can you find the data you want? 3

    4. Defining Terms: Immigrant, Foreign Born, and Native • Immigrant – Anyone admitted to the United States for lawful permanent residence as defined by the Immigration and Nationality Act • Legal permanent residents (LPRs) include “new arrivals” and “adjustments of status” • Foreign born – Anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth • The foreign born include naturalized U.S. citizens, LPRs, temporary migrants, humanitarian migrants, people illegally present in the United States • NOTE: The foreign-born population includes immigrants (LPRs). • Native – Anyone who is a U.S. citizen at birth 4

    5. 5

    6. Defining Terms:Cautionary Notes • U.S. definition of “foreign born” different from other countries • U.S. excludes those born abroad of at least one American citizen parent (“natives”) as foreign born • Other countries, e.g., Australia, include everyone born outside as foreign born • Exercise caution if comparing with data from other countries • When analyzing microdata,watch who you include as foreign born • Place of birth – the country where a person was born • Citizenship – the person’s citizenship status • Place of birth alone will give you all persons born abroad, including citizens born abroad, so need to cross these variables for foreign-born population 6

    7. Defining Terms: Flow vs. Stock Data • Flow data – The collection or summation of events during a certain period, such as a year • Examples: vital statistics (e.g., births, deaths), administrative or work load statistics (e.g., nonimmigrant admissions, naturalizations, refugee arrivals, visas issued) • Stock data – The number of persons at a given date • Examples: survey and census data (e.g., population size by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, or place of birth) 7

    8. Flow Data: Examples • Department of Homeland Security (DHS) – Administrative/Work Load Statistics • Yearbook of Immigration Statistics • LPR arrivals/adjustments, refugee arrivals, asylees, naturalizations, nonimmigrant admissions, enforcement actions • H-1B application statistics • Temporary Protected Status (TPS) application statistics • Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) statistics • State Department – Visa Issuance Statistics • Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) – Foreign Tourist Arrival Statistics • Department of Labor (DOL) – Foreign Labor Certification Statistics • These are not population counts! • However, DHS Office of Immigration Statistics and other researchers use stock • and flow data and various methodologies to estimate the size of some of these • populations… 8

    9. Stock Data: Uses and Sources • USES: • Can help answer: how many? what kind? where? • TYPES OF DATA SOURCES: • Censuses provide counts of the population • U.S. Census of the Population (e.g., Census 2000 Short Form/100% Data; Census 2010 Data) • Surveys are statistical samples used to estimate the size and characteristics of the population • U.S. Census of the Population (e.g., Census 2000 Long Form/Sample Data) • American Community Survey • Current Population Survey • Others 9

    10. Census Data on the Foreign Born:Examples • Federally-funded, nationally-representative surveys are • the best sources of stock data on the foreign born • Examples of what you can do with the data: • Population size • Trends through time • Characteristics (e.g., country of birth) • Distribution and level of geography • Note: Much of this data and information are readily available • on the Census Bureau’s website (e.g., as microdata to download, • as tabulated data, maps, etc.) 10

    11. Foreign-Born Population: 1990, 2000, and 2007 (in millions) Sources: 1990 and 2000 decennial censuses, 2007 American Community Survey. 11

    12. Number of Foreign Born and the Foreign-Born Population as a Percent of the Total Population of the United States: 1960 to 2007 12

    13. Percent Distribution of the Foreign-Born Population by Region of Birth, for the United States: 1960 to 2007 13

    14. M0501. Percent of People Who Are Foreign Born: 2007Universe: Total populationData Set: 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Source: American FactFinder (http://factfinder.census.gov) 14

    15. Selected Population Profiles Iterations for over 100 foreign-born groups For nation, states, and other geographic areas that have a total population of 500,000 and group population of 65,000 or more Additional social, economic, and demographic information on the foreign born not previously available from other ACS tables (e.g., fertility, disability, family income, poverty of individuals, etc.) 15

    16. Select Sources That Include Data on the Foreign Born in the United States • Population and Housing Decennial Censuses • American Community Survey (ACS) • Other Relevant Surveys 16

    17. Decennial Census – Quick Facts • Purpose: Apportionment of House seats among • the states • Universe: Entire U.S. resident population • (households and group quarters) • Frequency: Every 10 years (since 1790) • Format: Short and long forms for Census 2000 but • short form only for Census 2010 • Geography: National and extensive sub-national 17

    18. American Community Survey – Quick Facts • Purpose: Provide timely data at national and extensive sub-national geography levels • Universe: U.S. resident population • (3 million housing units in sample) • Frequency: Yearly estimates based on July 1 population • Geography: Nation, state, county and, place (2005) and extensive sub-national (2008 forward) • (65,000+ available now; 20,000+ in 3-year estimates available in December 2008; every geography down to block group level in 5-year estimates available in 2010) 18

    19. American Community Survey – Key Migration Items • In addition to all of the other items on the ACS: • Place of birth/nativity (not country of citizenship) • U.S. citizenship • Year of naturalization (beginning in 2008 ACS) • Year of entry • Migration history (residence 1 year ago) • Race, ethnicity (Hispanic origin), ancestry • Language spoken at home 19

    20. Comparing 2007 ACS Data to Census 2000 Data • Global differences exist • e.g., residency rules, universes, reference periods • For most population and housing subjects, comparisons can be made • Place of birth, citizenship, nativity, language can be compared • Year of entry can be compared (watch reference periods) • Residence 1 year ago (ACS) should not be compared to residence 5 years ago (Census 2000) • “How to Use the Data” • www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData • “Comparing ACS to Other Sources” • www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData/compACS.htm 20

    21. ACS Margin of Errors (MOEs) • MOE describes the precision of an estimate at a given level of confidence Margin of Error = 1.645 x Standard Error • Census Bureau’s statistical standard: 90 percent confidence level • Users should conduct statistical testing to determine if two estimates are statistically different • This is especially important for small population groups because of large margins of error • “Data Users Handbook” • www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/Handbook2006.pdf 21

    22. Contact Information Elizabeth M. Grieco Chief, Immigration Statistics Staff Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau 301-763-5275 Elizabeth.M.Grieco@census.gov Demographic Call Center Staff (301) 763-2422 1-866-758-1060 22

    23. Other Surveys Including Information About the Foreign Born • American Housing Survey (AHS) • American Time Use Survey (ATUS) • Current Population Survey (CPS) • National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) • National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) • National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) • New York City Housing Vacancy Survey (NYCHVS) • Survey of Program Dynamics (SPD) • Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 23

    24. Useful Websites with Data on Migration and the Foreign Born • U.S. Census Bureau: • www.census.gov • U.S. Census Bureau Foreign-Born Population Homepage: www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign.html • American FactFinder (for Census and ACS data): • factfinder.census.gov • (including the Selected Population Profiles) • Maps in American FactFinder: • factfinder.census.gov/jsp/saff/SAFFInfo.jsp?_pageId=gn7_maps • Data Ferrett (for Census, ACS, and CPS data): • dataferrett.census.gov • Other Data Access Tools (e.g., for downloading public use Census Bureau data): • www.census.gov/main/www/access.html 24

    25. Useful Websites with Data on Migrationand the Foreign Born(continued) • DHS Office of Immigration Statistics (including Yearbook of Immigration Statistics): • www.dhs.gov/immigrationstatistics • (see the right-hand side on the Data & Statistics page at www.dhs.gov/ximgtn/statistics/data for more links) • Department of State Visa Issuance Statistics: • travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/statistics/statistics_1476.html • SEVIS International Students/Exchange Visitor Data: • www.ice.gov/sevis/numbers • University of Minnesota IPUMS Project (for Census and CPS data): • www.ipums.umn.edu • University of Minnesota International IPUMS Project (for international data): • international.ipums.org/international 25

    26. Information from Secondary Sources, e.g., Think Tanks, Advocacy Groups • Note: Data presented often secondary, information presented for • reason; use judiciously, with caution. • Migration Policy Institute (www.migrationpolicy.org) • Migration Information Source (www.migrationinformation.org) • Center for Immigration Studies (www.cis.org) • Urban Institute (www.urban.org) • Pew Hispanic Center (www.pewhispanic.org) • Brookings Institute (www.brookings.edu) • Federation for American Immigration Reform (www.fairus.org) • NumbersUSA (www.numbersusa.org) • American Immigration Lawyers Association (www.aila.org) • Immigration Policy Center (www.aila.org/ipc) • American Immigration Law Foundation (www.ailf.org) 26

    27. International Data Sources • Note: Compare U.S. and international data carefully, as • concepts and definitions may make the data not directly • comparable (e.g., foreigner vs. foreign born). • United Nations Population Division (www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm) • United Nations Statistics Division (unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/default.htm) • United Nations Population Information Network (www.un.org/popin) • IOM (www.iom.int/jahia/jsp/index.jsp) • Statistics Canada (www.statcan.ca) • Citizenship and Immigration Canada (www.cic.gc.ca) • INEGI (www.inegi.gob.mx) • CONAPO (www.conapo.gob.mx) • Eurostat (ec.europa.eu/eurostat) • International Statistical Agencies: (www.census.gov/main/www/stat_int.html) 27