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Chapter Eleven Living with Cancer and Chronic Conditions. Status of Cancer Today. Annually, over 1.2 million people developed cancer [U.S. 2002] Contributing factors could be: aging tobacco use high fat foods pollution no health insurance lack of education. Cell Regulation.
Chapter ElevenLiving with Cancer and Chronic Conditions
Status of Cancer Today • Annually, over 1.2 million people developed cancer [U.S. 2002] • Contributing factors could be: • aging • tobacco use • high fat foods • pollution • no health insurance • lack of education
Cell Regulation • Cells perform important daily functions • Regulatory genes – responsible for monitoring cell replication, specialization, DNA repair, and suppression • Oncogenes – faulty regulatory genes that fail to function properly • Proto-oncogenes –normal regulatory genes that may become oncogenes
Oncogene Formation • All cells have proto-oncogenes • 3 mechanisms that contribute to oncogene formation: • genetic mutations • viral infections • presence of carcinogens, environmental agents
Characteristics of a Cancerous Cell • Infinite life expectancy (telomerase enzyme) • Absence of contact inhibition • Absence of cellular cohesiveness (metastasis) • Ability to control extra blood supply (angiogenesis potential)
Carcinoma Sarcoma Lymphoma Leukemia Melanoma Neuroblastoma Adenocarcinoma Hepatoma Benign vs. malignant growths are not always safe Types of Cancers
Lung Breast Uterus Vagina Ovary Lymph Cervix Prostate Testicle Colon/rectum Pancreas Skin Common Cancer Sitesof the Body
ABCDE’s of Skin Cancer Asymmetry Border Color Diameter Elevation
7 Warning Signs of Cancer Change in bowel/bladder habits Asore that won’t heal Unusual bleeding Thickening or lump Indigestion Obvious change in wart/mole Nagging cough
Treatment for Cancer • Surgery • Radiation • Chemotherapy • Immunotherapy • Alternative cancer therapies
Risk Reduction • Know family history • Avoid tobacco • Eat properly • Monitor environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogens
Risk Reduction (cont’d) • Control body weight • Exercise regularly • Limit UV rays • Consume alcohol moderately
Systemic lupus erythematosus Crohn’s Disease Multiple Sclerosis Diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and 2) Alzheimer’s Disease Sickle Cell Disease Other ChronicHealth Conditions