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CHILD ABUSE by DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR Coordinator cum Reader Victimology & Victim Assistance Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli Tamil Nadu. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION. Introduction Child rights / human rights and Child Abuse Definition of child abuse. Magnitude of the Problem

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CHILD ABUSEbyDR.BEULAH SHEKHARCoordinator cum ReaderVictimology & Victim Assistance Manonmaniam Sundaranar UniversityTirunelveliTamil Nadu

outline of the presentation
OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION
  • Introduction
  • Child rights / human rights and Child Abuse
  • Definition of child abuse.
  • Magnitude of the Problem
  • Types of child abuse.
  • Causes of child abuse.
  • Behavior indicators of child abuse.
  • Physical indicators of child abuse.
  • Effects of child abuse
  • Abuser Profile
  • Legal Provisions in India
  • Prevention of Child abuse
  • Initiatives in India

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

slumdog millionaire an oscar winner for the film industry
Slumdog Millionaire – an Oscar winner for the film industry

The story line of the movie – a harsh reality for many street children in India.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

introduction
Introduction

Childhood, world over is not homogeneous ;

Several childhoods co-exist depending on the

  • Social status
  • economic status
  • physical ability
  • mental ability
  • geographical location and
  • other differences

The above factors determine the degree of their vulnerability to abuse.

Therefore Child abuse, a global problem , occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in the cultural, economic and social practices of the countries

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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History illustrates, children are never a priority for any government.

The reality is that they have no voting rights and consequently there is ‘investment’ in the vote bank like the other schemes of the politician, hence this disregard of their right to protection.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

child rights human rights and child abuse
Child rights / Human Rights and Child abuse
  • The government’s responses to child rights have until recently been erected through a welfarist approach –- where children are looked at as passive recipients, and the State as the benevolent giver.
  • Children are neither the property of their caretakers/ parents nor are they helpless objects of charity.
  • They are human beings and are the subject of their own rights.
  • The Government has to formulate policy and accountable delivery systems for the realization of child rights.
  • The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) sets out the rights that must be realized for children to develop their full potential, free from abuse and neglect.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

child rights are human rights
Child Rights Are Human Rights
  • There is a definitive shift from addressing children’s issues as a matter of charity to a matter of deliverable entitlements.
  • The Convention offers a revelation of the child as an individual and as a member of a family and community, with age specific rights and responsibilities for each stage of development.
  • By recognizing children's rights, the Convention firmly sets the focus on the whole child and reflects a new revelation of the child.
  • Therefore the CRC the Magna Carta for the Children of the World, broadly classifies the rights of the child into four groups
          • Right to Survival
          • Right to Protection
          • Right to Development and the
          • Right to Participation

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

from rhetoric to reality
From RHETORIC TO REALITY

Despite the existence of the Magna Carta –the CRC ant the ratifiaction by most nations ,the children of the world endure

  • poverty,
  • homelessness,
  • abuse,
  • neglect,
  • preventable diseases,
  • unequal access to education and
  • justice systems that do not recognize their special needs.

These are problems that occur in both developed and developing countries.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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In 1999, the WHO Consultation on Child Abuse Prevention compared definitions of abuse from 58 countries and drafted the following definition:Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of
      • physical and/or
      • emotional ill-treatment,
      • sexual abuse,
      • neglect or negligent treatment or
      • commercial or other exploitation,

resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s

          • health,
          • survival,
          • development or
          • dignity
  • in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.’’

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

other definitions of child abuse
Other Definitions of Child Abuse

……The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child’s welfare under circumstances which indicate that the child’s health or welfare is harmed or threatened.

…..Any behavior directed toward a child that endangers or impairs a child’s physical or emotional health and development

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

definition of child abuse
Definition of child abuse
  • Any action, whether it is a single or continuous violation that infringes any rights provided in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, constitutes Abuse !
  • In Tamil Abuse means ` Urimai Meeral `
  • Literally translated means `Violation of rights`

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

magnitude of the problem
Magnitude of the problem

The Children of India constitute

the second largest child population in the world.

the largest number of children in work

44,476 children were missing in India

ILO estimates that 218 million children (The largest in the world ) in India were involved in child labor, of whom 126 million were engaged in hazardous work.

5.7 million were victims of forced or bonded labour,

1.8 million were victims of prostitution and child pornography and

1.2 million were victims of trafficking

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

study on child abuse india 2007 a report by ministry of women and child development
STUDY ON CHILD ABUSE : INDIA 2007 A report by Ministry of Women and Child Development
  • This is the first time the government has done such an exhaustive survey on the controversial issue of child abuse. These statistics not only shatter the age old myth of only girls being the victims but also brings to light the need for boys being given equal protection.
  • 19% of the world’s children live in India.
  • 42% of India’s total population are aged below eighteen.
  • Two out of every three children in India are physically abused,
  • 53% of the surveyed children reported one or more forms of sexual abuse.
  • Around 54.22 per cent of the boys and 22.54 per cent of girls from the city have faced severe forms of abuse like rape, sodomy, touching or fondling, being forced to exhibit private parts and photographed in the nude.
  • Over 82.43 per cent boys and 58.69 per cent girls from the city have faced other forms of abuse like forcible kissing, sexual advances during travel, family gatherings and being exposed to pornographic materials.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Sources: United States Dept. of Health and Human Services United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, United States Department of Justice

  • More than three children die each day in the United States from child abuse and neglect.
  • By age 18, one of every four girls and one of every six boys has been sexually abused.
  • It is estimated that 100,000-500,000 children are sexually abused each year.
  • Eighty-five percent of sexual assaults on children are committed by someone the child knows and usually trusts A report of child abuse is made – on average - every 10 seconds.
  • Each day in the United States, more than three children die as a result of child abuse in the home. Head trauma is the leading cause of child abuse death among babies. This includes Shaken Baby Syndrome, which kills 25% of its victims. The majority of survivors suffer brain damage.
  • Most child abuse and neglect fatalities are children below the age of 6.
  • Girls are sexually abused four times more often than boys, while boys are a greater risk of emotional neglect and serious injury.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

magnitude of the problem16
MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM
  • It doesn't matter what statistics say.
  • Whether the percentage of abused children is 25 or 75 or whether it is 58.67843 is unimportant.
  • My contention is that ….
  • Each child that is abused is one too many and that the state is accountable !

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Types of Physical Abuse

Burning

Shaking

Beating

Scalding

Kicking

Suffocating

Hitting

Tying Up

Throwing

Biting

Choking

Pinching

TYPES OF ABUSEDefinition Of : Physical abuse is the intentional injury of a child, ranging from minor bruises and lacerations to death.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The following are physical indicators of physical abuse:
  • Unexplained bruises/welts on face, mouth, torso, buttock, thighs that are:
      • In various stages of healing, clustered, forming regular patterns, reflecting shape of object (loop, cord, etc.)
      • Regularly appear after absence, weekend or vacation
  • Unexplained fractures (skull, nose, facial) in various stages of healing, often spiral fractures
  • Unexplained lacerations or abrasions (mouth, lips, eyes, external genitalia)

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The following are behavioral indicators of physical abuse:
  • Unable to explain injury or explanations are inconsistent with the injury
  • Frightened of parent of caretaker, afraid to go home
  • Reports intentional injury
  • Changes in behavior or school performance
  • Poor self-image
  • Wary of adult contact, guarded
  • Behavioral extremes
  • Suicidal thoughts

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Definition: Neglect occurs when the parent fails to provide a child with basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education or proper supervision
  • Physical Indicators
        • Failure to Thrive
        • Dirty/hungry children
        • Medical neglect
        • Body Odor
        • Lack of dental care
        • Inadequate shelter
        • Safety issues

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The following are behavioral indicators of neglect:
  • Lack of parental response
  • Excessive sleeping
  • Begging for food
  • Attention seeking behaviors
  • Excessive absences from school
  • Child / caretaker abusing drugs or alcohol

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Definition: Emotional abuse may occur when a parent/caregiver fails to provide the understanding, warmth, attention, and supervision the child needs for healthy psychological growth.
  • Also, when a parent/caregiver ignores, terrorizes, blames, belittles or otherwise makes a child feel that he’s worthless and incompetent

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Physical Indicators
  • Speech disorders
  • Failure to Thrive
  • Motor coordination delays
  • Emotional delays
  • Signs of unexplained fear or panic

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The following are behavioral indicators of emotional abuse:
  • Habit disorders; sucking, biting, rocking
  • Conduct disorders; antisocial, destructive
  • Behavior extremes
  • Overly adaptive behavior
  • Attempted suicide or self-destructive behaviors
  • Low self esteem
  • Problems with attention

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Definition: Sexual abuse occurs when an adult exploits a child for sexual gratification. Sexual abuse is not limited to intercourse. Exposing oneself to a child and fondling a child’s genitals are considered sexual abuse. So is using a child for production of pornographic materials.

Voyeurism

Fondling

Child prostitution

Child pornography

Intercourse

  • Sodomy
  • Oral-genital stimulation
  • Verbal stimulation
  • Exhibitionism

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

possible physical symptoms include
Possible physical symptoms include:
  • Pain and/or bleeding in anal or genital area
  • Difficulty walking, sitting
  • Displays age-inappropriate play with toys, self or others
  • Inappropriate knowledge about sex
  • Child reports sexual abuse
  • Venereal disease or pregnancy

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The following are some behavioral indicators of sexual abuse:
  • Unwilling to change clothing
  • Poor peer relationships
  • Lack of privacy in home
  • Delinquent or running away behavior
  • Masturbating excessively
  • Overly affectionate with others
  • Self-destructive behaviors
  • Promiscuity
  • Sudden, unexplained change of behavior

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Indicators of Child Abuse

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

causes of child abuse
Causesof Child Abuse

Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse.

  • Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely to physically abuse their children. Whether Domestic Violence is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital discord and abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser is still debated.
  • Substance abuse is a major contributing factor to child abuse. Studies found that
      • parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to abuse their children,
      • There is a relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and
      • There is a relationships between cocaine and sexual abuse
      • More than 2/3 of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Studies show that many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. History of Abuse is also a cause for child abuse
  • Some NGOs claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms.
  • In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

slide31

Three Major Components Child Abuse

Child

+

Care Giver

+

Stress

=

Child Abuse

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

causes of stress associated with the child
Causes of Stress Associated With The Child
  • An unwanted child
  • A child that is differently abled
  • A crying, irritable child
  • A hyperactive child
  • A child that reminds the parent or someone they do not like
  • A low birth-weight child stay in the hospital for a prolonged period of time.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

causes of stress associated with the parent
Causes of Stress Associated With The Parent:
  • Abused as a child
  • Single parent due to death desertion divorce or workibng out of the country
  • Alcohol or other drugs.
  • Low self-esteem
  • Isolation
  • Husband uninvolved and critical
  • Emotional immaturity
  • Postpartum depression
  • Unrealistic expectations
  • Stress of unemployment
  • Financial stress
  • Mental illness

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

the effects of child abuse depend on the type of abuse
The effects of child abuse depend on the type of Abuse.

Various studies shows that

  • Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility
  • abuse or neglect were related to chronic conditions, high risk health behaviors and shortened live span.
  • emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms
  • Victims of physical abuse have a higher risk of developing cancer.
  • Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason
  • Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.
  • Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life.
  • The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public health issue that should be addressed by the health care system.
  • Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems or a disorganized attachment style.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

abuser profile
Abuser Profile

A substantial number of the abusers were "persons in trust and care-givers" who included parents, relatives and school teachers. The Potentially Abuser can be people who

  • Have been raised in a non-nurturing or abusive home
  • Have a poor self-concept or depression
  • Are in a violent spousal relationship
  • Are isolated- physically, socially, emotionally
  • Have unrealistic expectations of child
  • Are young parents
  • Are Untrained Un bonded caretakers, i.e.. boyfriends/girlfriends

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The Indian Constitution 1950 has several provisions that strongly articulate its commitment to children

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2006,

the proposed Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Amendment Bill 2006,

Offences Against Children Bill, and

the Child Marriage Bill

Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act

Protection of Child Rights Act 2005,

This decade is seeing the highest rate of legislative action on any one constituency or issue in the history of India

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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In India, parents are often reluctant to admit child abuse and sexual abuse of children involving family members is almost always hushed up.
  • Perhaps that is why - as the study shows - more than 50% of the young adults surveyed wanted the matter of abuse to remain within the family.
  • Only 17% of the abused young adults wanted harsh punishment for the abusers.
  • Pinki Virani, for the first time in India published with facts and figures on sexual child abuse in the year 2000 in her book `Bitter Chocolate` and broke silence to narrate her own experience of abuse by an extended family member. Incest was denied .

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

age old maxim
Age old maxim ……….
  • Prevention is better than cure…..
  • Stitch in time saves nine…..

And the list of proverbs goes on and on..

What is prevention ?

Parenting is preventing

Child protection is prevention

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The three pronged approach that that

every government should concentrate on

    • the prevention of child abuse
    • The protection of their rights and
    • Ending impunity for these heinous crimes

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Two institutions play a very important role in prevention of child abuse victimization:
  • Protection- Protection is the job of the parent / caregiver / government
  • Prosecution - Prosecution is the job of the state at the national level and the ICC at the International

level

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The Government has formulated policy the NICP / ICPS is a definitive shift from addressing children’s issues from a rights perspective

But implementation requires budget allocation and more often than not these legislations remain a rhetoric and not a reality for children on India

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The problem is the govts reaction is triggered by tragedies such as the killings of more than 30 children in Nithari, Delhi, the knee-jerk reaction to which, was immediate consensus on the passing of the Offences Against Children Bill, 2005

The State infrastructure and services for children in need are poor both in terms of number and quality

This inadequacy of the infrastructure is due to the to skewed budgetary allocations of funds for child rights for Child protection in India

2008- 2009- 180 crores - 37.5 million dollars

2009- 2010 - 54 crores - 11 ¼ million dollars

Child protection receiving a negligible budgetary allocation of 0.34% of the Union Budget resources for children.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

prevention
PREVENTION
  • Henry Fielding, the father of crime prevention, in the 1700s gave three ways to prevent crime these methods holds good even today to prevent Child Abuse Victimisation present day scenario.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

slide45
Legal and executive methods – This includes the recently enacted JJ legislation and implementation through the appointment of Child protection officers, selection of service providers and the sensitization of the police officers and setting up of all women’s police stations. To tackle child sexual abuse,  the Delhi High Court has called for a more stringent law, on May 2, 2009 saying the definition of rape under section 376 IPC should be made age and gender neutral. Peoples cooperation methods - This will be creating awareness through the NGOs and the other community workers regarding the existence of the Child helpline (1098)
  • Removal of causes of abuse from the society – the eradication of the social evils and change in the socialization s which leads to the treatment of children like property

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

prevention of child abuse should can be focused at three levels
Prevention of Child abuse should can be focused  at three levels.
  • At the primary level, the focus can be on removing the causes, strengthening the child's competence to recognize and react, increasing parental awareness, strengthening social vigilance, and bringing in effective and punitive penal policy.
  • At the secondary level, the emphasis should be on early detection, quick intervention and provision of a supportive environment in schools and families.
  • Tertiary intervention should involve coordination among the police, courts, counselors, doctors and social workers.- MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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Awareness created on 19th November the world day for prevention of child abuse and designated as the WORLD DAY FOR PREVENTION OF CHILD ABUSE November 19th

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

ten nine eight 1098
Ten….nine…eight…. 1098

CHILDLINE – A help line or perhaps a life line for the street children of India

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

objectives of childline
Objectives of Childline

To facilitate a clear understanding of and commitment to Child Rights and Child Protection and create a child –friendly environment among the Allied Systems.

To enhance in the Allied Systems an understanding of Child Rights and the law.

To evolve a more child – friendly approach and intervention by the Allied Systems both at the organisational and individual levels.

To determine avenues of collaboration between Allied Systems and CHILDLINE resulting in the development of various programmes and services for Child Protection.

To advocate on issues related to the protection of Child Rights.

To encourage the systems to elicit children’s participation in all processes.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

role of partners
ROLE OF PARTNERS

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

interdependence of government organizations ngo s and corporate
Interdependence of government Organizations, NGO’s and Corporate

Government organisations

Enforcing authority

  • Manpower
  • Funds
  • They come in direct contact and can identify victims

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

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The CHILDLINE colaborated with the Ministry and initiates the National initiative for Child Protection (NICP) whose focus is sharing an understanding of issues related to children with the Allied Systems

the police,

transport,

health,

railways,

labour department,

DOT,

the Juvenile Welfare Boards

Child Welfare committee

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

ngo s
NGO’s
  • Drive and dedication
  • Time
  • They are the front line professionals as they are the ones the children approach first.

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

corporates
Corporates
  • Money power
  • CSR Corporate Social Responsibility – their debt to the society
  • Tax exemption for funding research and projects

Together they can work to prevent child Abuse Victimization

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA

thank you questions
THANK YOU .QUESTIONS ?

DR.BEULAH SHEKHAR, INDIA