LEPTOSOLS. Dr. Selim KAPUR University of Çukurova Departments of Soil Science and Archaeometry Adana, TURKEY email@example.com. Mineral Soils conditioned by Topography and Age.
Dr. Selim KAPUR
University of Çukurova
Departments of Soil Science and Archaeometry
The development of the profile islimited by the erosion exceeding soil formation or by the influence of topographic position
The Reference Soil Group of the Leptosols accommodates very shallow soils over hard rock or highly calcareous material but also deeper soils that are extremely gravelly and/or stony.
They are particularly common in mountain regions. Leptosols correlate with the `Lithosols' taxa of many international classification systems (USA, FAO) and with `Lithic' subgroups of other soils groupings. In many systems, Leptosols on calcareous rock are denoted `Rendzinas'; those on acid rock are also called `Rankers'.
poor drainage, and
continuous hard rock@ within 25 cm from the soil surface; or a mollic@ horizon with a thickness between 10 and 25 cm directly overlying material with a calcium carbonate equivalent of more than 40 percent, or less than 10 percent (by weight) fine earth from the soil surface down to a depth of 75 cm; and
no diagnostic horizons other than a mollic@, ochric@, umbric@, or yermic@ horizon.
Mollic A-horizon, surface horizon with dark color due to organic matter; Base saturation exceeds 50%.
Ochric A horizon, surface without stratification and lacking the characteristics of (A histic H-horizon, or) a mollic, umbric or fimic A-horizon
Umbric, similar to a mollic A-horizon but base saturation lower than 50%
Yermic, an A horizon with aridic properties and a pavement that is varnished or includes wind-shaped gravel or stones ("ventifacts"); or a pavement and a vesicular crust; or a vesicular crust above a platy A-horizon, without a pavement, ora biological crust, 1 -2 mm thick.
Lithic (Chromic?) Leptosol
COMMON SOIL UNITS
May be a shallow soil overlying calcareous material but a petrocalcic horizon integrates it to a Calcisol, NOT A LEPTOSOL
Parent materialVarious kinds of rock or unconsolidated materials with less than 10 percent fine earth.
Environment: High or medium altitude and with strongly dissected topography. Leptosols are found in all climatic zones, particularly in strongly eroding areas.
Profile development: A(B)R or A(B)C profiles with a thin A-horizon. Many Leptosols in calcareous weathering material have a mollicA-horizon that shows signs of intensive biological activity with a thin argic B.
Young soils, a thin A-horizon over an incipient B-horizon or directly over the unaltered rock.
I. Cambisols: with the development of a cambic horizon.
II. Andosols: if tephric soil material is present in profile
III. Podzols:The definition of the spodic horizon leaves the possibility open that a full-fledged Podzol exists within the depth limits of Leptosols. Such (mature!) soils are not Leptosols, despite the presence of hard rock within 25 cm from the surface, but are classified as (Leptic) Podzols.
IV. Luvisols: The definition of the argic horizon (a relict Bt on the surface) precludes that an argic horizon can be present within the depth limits of Leptosols, unless there is an abrupt textural transition from the overlying horizon to the (more than 7.5 cm thick) argic horizon. In that case the soil is classified as a (Leptic) Luvisol (or Acrisol or Lixisol, depending on CEC, clay and base saturation).
V. Gleysols: "Gleyic properties" in Leptosols are exclusive to (deeper) soils that qualify as Leptosols because they have less than 10 percent (by weight) fine earth to a depth of at least 75 cm. "Stagnic properties" may have to be considered both in Leptosols with continuous hard rock within 25 cm of the surface and in Leptosols with less than 10 percent of fine earth to a depth of 75 cm, but Leptosols with stagnic properties have not been sufficiently documented so far.
VI. Mollisols: A thin mollic epipedon overyling unalterned rock particulary at mountaionus conditions under dense natural pasture vegetation of Turkey most probably similar to the Rendzic units of Spain, Italy, France, Albania, and Crotia qualifying as Leptosols
Shallowness, stoniness, low water holding capacity
Earthworms and enchytraeid worms are the chief organisms important in carbon sequestration
+A resource potential for wet-season grazing, olive orchards, and vineyard.
Abandoned Roman Terraces inducing biodiversity and soil development
+Human induced Erosion is the greatest threat. But natural erosion is almost nil beacuse of vegetation cover coupled with cracks with clay infills to retain water & inhibit movement on bare karstic surface
+High population pressure (tourism), overexploitation and increasing environmental pollution lead to increasing deterioration of forests and threaten large areas of vulnerable Leptosols.
Terrace walls on karstic landscape for water harvesting
+Man-made terraces for SLM allocated for grazing, grain and vineyard, olive,
carob, fig production on Chromic/Luvic Leptosols