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A Review of LPC Supervisor Adherence to Ethical Guidelines Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. Texas A&M University—Commerce. What We Are Going to Cover. Review of particular ethical issues in supervision.

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Timothy d kruse m s perry c francis ed d texas a m university commerce

A Review of LPC Supervisor Adherence to Ethical Guidelines Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S.

Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

Texas A&M University—Commerce


What we are going to cover

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

What We Are Going to Cover

  • Review of particular ethical issues in supervision.

  • The results of the research we completed.

  • The implications of the data and suggestions for further research.


Ethics the law

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • Our research focused on the adherence to & application of the ethical guidelines of:

    • Supervisory training (in supervision)

    • Supervisor experience (client issues & populations)

  • The research also focused on the adherence to the Texas LPC Laws concerning supervisory training.


Ethics the law1

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • From the ACES Code of Ethics

    • 1. Observe ethical and legal protection of clients' and supervisee' rights;

    • 2. Meet the training and professional development needs of supervisees in ways consistent with clients' welfare and programmatic requirements; and

    • 3. Establish policies, procedures, and standards for implementing programs.


Ethics the law2

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • 2.01  Supervisors should have had training in supervision prior to initiating their role as supervisors.

  • Texas Law states that all LPC supervisors are to have had some form of training in supervision.

    • We were looking at how that training was received and if there were any difference between type of training and supervisor behavior.


Ethics the law3

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • 2.14     Supervisors should incorporate the principles of informed consent and participation; clarity of requirements, expectations, roles and rules; and due process and appeal into the establishment of policies and procedures of their institutions, program, courses, and individual supervisory relationships. Mechanisms for due process appeal of individual supervisory actions should be established and made available to all supervisees.


Ethics the law4

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • We were looking to see if a written “learning contract” was used between the supervisor and the supervisee.


Ethics the law5

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Ethics & the Law

  • 3.02  Supervisors should teach courses and/or supervise clinical work only in areas where they are fully competent and experienced.

    • We were looking to see if LPC-Supervisors areas of practice, continuing education, and client populations were congruent with the intern’s they supervised.

    • We were looking to see if LPC-Supervisors consulted with other practitioners when faced with client issues from a supervisee’s practice that they did not have experience or knowledge in.


The survey

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

The Survey

  • Two surveys were created

    • One for LPC-Supervisors

    • One for LPC-Interns


The survey1

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

The Survey

  • LPC-Supervisor Survey

    • Degree & Accreditation

    • Supervisory Training

    • Continuing Education

    • Credentials

    • Practice Setting & Population

    • Counseling & Supervision Theories

    • Intern Information

    • Use of Learning Contract

    • Use of Consultation


The survey2

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

The Survey

  • LPC-Intern Survey

    • Degree & Accreditation

    • Continuing Education

    • Setting & Client Population

    • Counseling Orientation

    • Supervisor’s Information

      • Credentials

      • Learning Contract

      • Type & Frequency of Supervision

        • Administrative or Clinical


Results

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • 1500 surveys were mailed to both registered supervisors and interns in the State of Texas.

  • 116 intern surveys were returned.

  • 108 supervisor surveys were returned


Results1

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Problems:

    • Both surveys asked about training, continuing education, populations served, and client issues.

      • Despite review of the survey by other counselor educators, there was an apparent confusion on how to report the aforementioned data. This caused the data obtained to be unusable.


Results2

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 108 supervisor surveys returned:

    • 63 Had a masters degree (58%)

    • 45 had a doctoral degree (42%)

    • 108 LPC

    • 2 Psychologist

    • 7 Social Worker

    • 43 LMFT

Some reported having more then one credential.


Results3

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Current Setting

    • 14 Community Mental Health

    • 14 School

    • 15 Counselor Education

    • 66 Private Practice

    • 12 College Counseling Clinic

    • 15 Non-Profit Agency

    • 6 Hospital

    • 2 Substance Abuse Program

    • 6 Other

Some reported working in more then one setting.


Results4

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 108 supervisors who responded, 70 were currently working with interns. In that group:

    • 38 had a masters degree (54%)

    • 32 had a doctoral degree (46%)

    • 70 LPC

    • 2 Psychologist

    • 2 Social Worker

    • 29 LMFT

Some reported having more then one credential.


Results5

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 70 supervisors who are currently working with interns:

    • 25 had a graduate course in supervision.

    • 36 had state approved continuing education to earn their supervisor status.

    • 10 had supervision of their supervision to earn their supervisor status.

    • 6 reported to be “grandparented” into supervisor status.

      • Some reported more then one method of education


Results6

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 70 supervisors who are currently working with interns:

    • 29 reported having a practicum as part of their supervisory education.

    • 40 reported not having a practicum as part of their supervisory education.

    • 1 participant did not respond to the question.


Results7

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 70 supervisors who are currently working with interns:

    • 37 reported having a written “learning contract” with their supervisee.

    • 11 reported having an oral “learning contract” with their supervisee.

    • 3 reported having “other” type of contract.

    • 21 participants did not respond.

      • Some participants check more then one response.


Results8

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 70 supervisors who are currently working with interns:

    • 13 reported that they had not consulted with a professional colleague in the last 12 months regarding the nature of client problems encountered by their LPC intern. (18%)

    • The average number of consultations reported by those who did consult with a colleague in the last 12 months was 4.66 with a range of 1 to 24.


Results9

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 70 supervisors who are currently working with interns:

    • 3 reported routinely encountering issues/problems that appear to be outside their areas of clinical expertise. (4.3%)

      • It needs to be taken into consideration that although this survey was anonymous there may be professional or social pressure to report that one is consulting with colleagues and/or not encountering issues beyond one’s professional expertise.


Results10

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 116 LPC Intern surveys returned:

    • 77 reported having a “learning contract”.

    • 37 reported not having a “learning contract”.

    • 2 respondents did not answer.

    • 50 reported having a written “learning contract”.

    • 34 reported having an oral “learning contract”.

    • 31 did not respond to the question.

    • 1 reported no learning contract.

      • Some reported having both a written and verbal learning contract.


Results11

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 116 LPC Intern surveys returned:

    • 15 reported less then weekly supervision.

    • 88 reported meeting with their supervisor at least once a week.

    • 12 reported meeting with their supervisor more then once a week.


Results12

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Results

  • Of the 116 LPC Intern surveys returned:

    • 110 reported having individual supervision.

    • 13 reported having triadic supervision.

    • 48 reported group supervision.

      • Some participants reported having had two or more forms of supervision.


Final thoughts questions

Timothy D. Kruse, M.S. & Perry C. Francis, Ed.D Regarding Supervisor Competence & Experience

Final Thoughts & Questions