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Pathogen Removal or Inactivation

Pathogen Removal or Inactivation

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Pathogen Removal or Inactivation

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  1. Pathogen Removal or Inactivation Technical Advisory PanelReclaimed Water Rule Jim McCauley (360) 407-7468 jima461@ecy.wa.gov

  2. Pathogen Removal/Inactivation • Bacteria • Total coliform • Fecal coliform • E. coli • Enterococci • Protozoans • Giardia lamblia • Cryptosporidium • Viruses • F-specific bacteriophage MS2 • Polio • Other resistant strains

  3. WA Class A or equivalent(unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses) 1A higher standard is applied to direct aquifer recharge 2New rule proposed for groundwater recharge for the purpose of drinking water 3Both Idaho Class A and B have the same total coliform standard

  4. WA Class A or equivalent(unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses)

  5. WA Class B or equivalent1(restricted uses) 1Severalstates do not use a four class system, but may have 2-3 classes

  6. WA Class C or equivalent(restricted human & limited agricultural uses)

  7. WA Class C or equivalent(restricted human & limited agricultural uses)

  8. WA Class D or equivalent(sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops)

  9. WA Class D or equivalent(sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops)

  10. Pathogen Reduction via Treatment Technique • Prescriptive treatment methods • Oxidation • Coagulation • Filtration • Conventional media • Membrane • Alternative, i.e. fabric • Disinfection • “higher level” • Standard

  11. Treatment Technique Comparison 1Idaho also has a Class E, primary effluent for forest irrigation only

  12. Treatment Technique Comparison

  13. Wastewater Discharge Standards • Fecal coliform • Monthly geometric mean ≤ 200/100ml • Weekly geometric mean ≤ 400/100 ml • AKART

  14. AKART AKART is the requirement for “all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control and treatment” All waste discharges must be provided with AKART prior to entry into the state’s waters, regardless of the quality of the receiving water

  15. Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters WAC173-201A • Extraordinary primary contact: • protection against waterborne disease • shellfish harvesting areas • Primary contact recreation • direct contact with water • Secondary contact recreation • water contact would be limited (e.g., wading or fishing)

  16. WA Freshwater StandardsFecal Coliform (1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.

  17. WA Marine Water StandardsFecal Coliform & Enterococci (1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.

  18. WA Groundwater Standards Purpose: establish maximum contaminant levels • Drinking water = highest quality ? • Environmental systems may require higher standard • Special protection areas WAC 173-200-090 • Close to natural ground water quality WAC 173-200-050 • Antidegradation • Only 1 pathogen is listed: total coliform – 1/100ml

  19. Antidegradation Antidegradation policy: • Background water quality must be protected • Cannot harm a beneficial use • Cannot violate Ground Water Quality Standards • AKART must be provided