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Pathogen Removal or Inactivation. Technical Advisory Panel Reclaimed Water Rule Jim McCauley (360) 407-7468 jima461@ecy.wa.gov. Pathogen Removal/Inactivation. Bacteria Total coliform Fecal coliform E. coli Enterococci Protozoans Giardia lamblia Cryptosporidium Viruses

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Pathogen Removal or Inactivation

Technical Advisory PanelReclaimed Water Rule

Jim McCauley

(360) 407-7468

jima461@ecy.wa.gov


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Pathogen Removal/Inactivation

  • Bacteria

    • Total coliform

    • Fecal coliform

    • E. coli

    • Enterococci

  • Protozoans

    • Giardia lamblia

    • Cryptosporidium

  • Viruses

    • F-specific bacteriophage MS2

    • Polio

    • Other resistant strains


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WA Class A or equivalent(unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses)

1A higher standard is applied to direct aquifer recharge

2New rule proposed for groundwater recharge for the purpose of

drinking water

3Both Idaho Class A and B have the same total coliform standard


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WA Class A or equivalent(unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses)


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WA Class B or equivalent1(restricted uses)

1Severalstates do not use a four class system,

but may have 2-3 classes


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WA Class C or equivalent(restricted human & limited agricultural uses)


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WA Class C or equivalent(restricted human & limited agricultural uses)


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WA Class D or equivalent(sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops)


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WA Class D or equivalent(sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops)


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Pathogen Reduction via Treatment Technique

  • Prescriptive treatment methods

    • Oxidation

    • Coagulation

    • Filtration

      • Conventional media

      • Membrane

      • Alternative, i.e. fabric

    • Disinfection

      • “higher level”

      • Standard


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Treatment Technique Comparison

1Idaho also has a Class E, primary effluent for forest irrigation only



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Wastewater Discharge Standards

  • Fecal coliform

    • Monthly geometric mean ≤ 200/100ml

    • Weekly geometric mean ≤ 400/100 ml

  • AKART


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AKART

AKART is the requirement for “all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control and treatment”

All waste discharges must be provided with AKART prior to entry into the state’s waters, regardless of the quality of the receiving water


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Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters WAC173-201A

  • Extraordinary primary contact:

    • protection against waterborne disease

    • shellfish harvesting areas

  • Primary contact recreation

    • direct contact with water

  • Secondary contact recreation

    • water contact would be limited (e.g., wading or fishing)


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WA Freshwater StandardsFecal Coliform

(1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.


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WA Marine Water StandardsFecal Coliform & Enterococci

(1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.


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WA Groundwater Standards

Purpose: establish maximum contaminant levels

  • Drinking water = highest quality ?

  • Environmental systems may require higher standard

    • Special protection areas WAC 173-200-090

    • Close to natural ground water quality WAC 173-200-050

  • Antidegradation

  • Only 1 pathogen is listed: total coliform – 1/100ml


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Antidegradation

Antidegradation policy:

  • Background water quality must be protected

  • Cannot harm a beneficial use

  • Cannot violate Ground Water Quality Standards

  • AKART must be provided