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Tool 2: Prepositions (P) can never have “a,” “an,” or “the” before them.

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Tool 2: Prepositions (P) can never have “a,” “an,” or “the” before them. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tool 1: A word is a preposition (P) if it is on the “preposition list.” A word is not a preposition (P ) if it is on the “ Never-a–Preposition List.”. Tool 2: Prepositions (P) can never have “a,” “an,” or “the” before them.

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Tool 1: A word is a preposition (P) if it is on the “preposition list.” A word is not a preposition (P)if it is on the “Never-a–Preposition List.”


Tool 3:Ask the question “what?” or “whom?” after a preposition (P). If there is an answer, the answer is the object of the preposition (OP). Use your logic to decide what the answer is. If there is no answer (no object of the preposition [OP]), then the word that looks like a preposition (P) is not a preposition (P) in that sentence.


Tool 4: What a word is in a sentence depends on how it is used in that sentence. For example, to be a preposition (P) a word must use all the preposition (P) tools.


Tool 5: The object of the preposition (OP) stops at the end of the whole answer to “what?” or “whom?” asked after the preposition (P). Use your own logic to know what the whole answer is. Go as far as you can to include as much as you logically can in the whole answer. End the object of the preposition (OP) after the end of the whole answer to the question “what?” or “whom?” after the preposition (P).

tool 6 there can be two prepositions p in a row ask what or whom after both together
Tool 6:There can be two prepositions (P) in a row. Ask “what?” or “whom?” after both together.

Tool 7: A prepositional phrase (PP) is two or more words that logically belong together. It starts with a preposition (P) and ends at the end of an object of the preposition (OP). Use your own sense of logic to see which words belong together and where the end of the object of the preposition (OP) is. The object of the preposition (OP) ends at the end of the answer to “what?” or “whom?” after the preposition (P). In your analysis, put a parenthesis around the whole PP.


Tool 8: If there are two or more prepositional phrases (PP) in a row, you can analyze them as separate prepositional phrases (PP), or you can analyze them as one inside the other. Do it the way that is most logical for you.


Tool 9: If you don’t know what infinitives (Inf) and dependent clauses (DC) are, you may analyze them at this time as prepositional phrases (PP), using all the prepositional phrase (PP) tools.


Tool 10: A connector (C) joins two or more of the same kind of item that comes before and after the connector (C).“and” is always a connector (C)“or” is always a connector (C)“but” is a connector (C) only when it means “however”“but” is not a connector (C) when it means “except for”


Tool 11: The parts that are connected by a connector (C) become a compound: compound preposition (cP), compound object of the preposition (cOP), compound prepositional phrase (cPP). Number the parts of the compound. Number parts only when they are in a compound, which is only when there is a connector (C) between them.


Tool 12:The two or more same items in a compound are always in a list. Everyitem in a compound list must make sense when it is read alone with the rest of the sentence. Make sure you know where the compound begins.


Tool 13:To find the subject (S) and verb (V) ask, “Who or what is, was, or will bedoing something?” The subject tells who or what is, was, or will be doing something. The subject (S) is the whole answer to “who or what?”


Tool 14: The verb (V) tells what the subject (S) is, was, or will be doing. To be a subject it must have a verb. To be a verb it must have a subject.


Tool 15: A subject (S) and its verb (V) must both be inside or both outside the same prepositional phrase PP. You will learn more about this pattern in Chapter 7 where you will learn about dependent clauses. No word inside a PP can be used with a word outside its PP. Words inside a PP can work only with words inside the same PP.


Tool 16: Verbs (V) that end in “ing” are called continuing verbs (CV). They must have a be verb with them. “Continuing” means the activity of the verb V is continuing over a period of time. The be helper verb (BH) and its continuing verb (CV) go together to make a whole verb: BH + CV = V. There are nine “be” verbs; most of them are be helperverbs (BH): am, is, are, was, were, will be, been, being, beNote: There are two other verbs (V) that act like be helper verbs (BH): get: get(s), got, will get (He got going quickly.) keep: keep(s), kept, will keep (She keeps working.)


Tool 17: Every “be” verb is always a verb. It is either a “be” helper verb (BH) with an “ing” continuing verb (CV) or it is a verb (V) by itself.


Tool 18: Every subject (S) has number: It is either singular (s: only one) or plural (p: more than one). The verb or helper verb (V or HV) must have the same number as its subject (S). This is called “number agreement.”


Tool 19: There can be only one subject (S) for each verb (V) and only one verb (V) for each subject (S)—unless there is a compound subject (cS) or compound verb (cV).


Tool 21: Without a be verb helping it or a subject (S), a verb-like word ending in “ing” is not a verb (V) in that sentence. Remember, the be helper verb (BH) must appear to the left of the continuing verb (CV) it is helping. If a word ending in “ing” has no subject (S) and no be helper (BH) to the left of it in that sentence, it is called a continuing verbal (CVbl). Verbal (Vbl) means it is like a verb, but it is not a verb (V) in that sentence.A continuing verbal can be a subject (S) or an object of the preposition (OP). (This kind of verbal [Vbl] is called a gerund.)


Tool 22: A verb (V) can never be a description or describe the subject (S). A verb (V) is either a be verb or it tells what the subject is, was, did or will be doing. Ask, “Does this word describe the subject or does it tell what the subject is, was, did, or will be doing?” If it is a verb-like word that is describing the subject (S), then it is not a verb (V). It is a verbal (Vbl) in this sentence.


Tool 23: Subject and verb are normally in the order of subject first and then the verb after the subject (S-V). There can be words in between the subject and its verb.


Tool 24: There are some acceptable exceptions to Tool 23. Two are in this chapter. Four more are in Chapter 11.Tool 24a: Sometimes when “there” or “here” comes first, the order can be V-S or HV-S-V.Tool 24b: In a question the word order can be S-V, V-S, or HV-S-V.


Tool 25: The second kind of helper verb is the root helper verb (RH). The root helper verb goes with root verbs. Root Helper Verbscan could did do does might may must shall should will would

Tool 27: When there is no root helper verb and no subject, the word that looks like a root verb might be a root verbal (RVbl).

Tool 28:In a command or request, the subject (“you”) is usually invisible. There is one—and only one—invisible subject: you. It is used only for a command or request.


Tool 29:In a command or request, if you use a name or term for the person you are commanding or requesting something from, that name or term is not the subject. That name or term is called the addressing word (AW). Use commas to separate the addressing word (AW) from the rest of the command or request. The invisible “you” is still the subject.


Tool 30: A prestarted verb (PV) must have a have helper verb in front of it. Tool 30a: There are four have helper verbs (HH). They go with prestarted verbs (PV). A have helper (HH) and a prestarted verb (PV) make a complete verb (V). The four have helper verbs are “have, had, has, and will have.”


Tool 31:There are two kinds of verbs (V): regular verbs and irregular verbs. Tools 31a:Regular verbs: Both the simple past and prestarted forms end in “ed.”Tool 31b: Irregular verbs: The past and restarted forms usually do not end in “ed” and are usually different from each other.

Tool 32:A prestarted verbal (PVbl) is like a prestarted verb (PV), but it has no have helper verb (HH) and no subject (S).

Tool 34:A verb (V) is called “passive” when someone or something else is doing the verb (V) to the subject (S). In a passive verb (V), there must always be the prepositional phrase (PP) “by someone or something” that tells who or what is doing the verb (V) to the subject (S). This prepositional phrase (PP) is either actually written in the sentence or understood (and invisible). A passive verb is always a be helper verb (BH) plus a prestarted verb (PV). This is the only verb (V) used for a passive.


Tool 35:When three or four verbs (V) are in a row, any verb (V) that is between two other verbs (V) is both a helper verb (HH) and also a main verb (V).1. The middle verb is the helper verb (BH, HH, or RH) for the verb (CV, PV, or RV) that comes after it.2. The middle verb is the verb (PV or RV) for the helper verb (HH or RH) in front of it.


Tool 36:Some subjects (S) and verbs (V) can be combined into one word by leaving out one or more letters. An apostrophe (’) replaces any missing letter(s). These shortened words are called “contractions” (con = together; tract = pull; contraction = pulled together).


Tool 37:After the subject (S) and its verb (V), ask, “whom or what?” The whole answer is the subject-verb completer (SVC). It completes the thought in the subject (S) and the verb (V). Use your own sense of logic to decide what the whole answer is.


Tool 38:The first word of a subject-verb completer (SVC) is sometimes a verbal (Vbl). When it is a verbal (Vbl), it is either a continuing verbal (CVbl) for an action or a prestarted verbal (PVbl) for a description. Tool 38a: If the subject-verb completer (SVC) is a verbal (Vbl) that is a description, use the prestarted verbal(PVbl).Tool 38b: If the subject-verb completer (SVC) is a verbal (Vbl) that is an action, use the continuing verbal (CVbl).


Tool 39:The first words of a subject-verb completer (SVC) are usually not a subject (S) and a verb (V). They are usually just a subject-like word and a verbal (Vbl). Tool 39a: However, the subject-verb completer (SVC) can begin with subject-verb if the SVC starts with one of the following words. who whom whoever whomever what whatever which whicheverthat (by itself, not with another word, not as in “that book”. (Sometimes “that “can be invisible.)


Tool 40:A pronoun is a non-name word (I, you, he, it, they, etc.) that stands in for or refers to a naming word or words (for example, Warren, a reader, my college, the Olympic Games, etc.). These naming words are nouns. A noun or pronoun can be a subject (S), an object of the preposition (OP), or a subject-verb completer (SVC). Tool 40a: The noun that a pronoun stands in for or refers to is called the pronoun’s “referent.” It needs to be close behind the pronoun, and it needs to be clear that this is the pronoun’s referent.


Tool 41:A pronoun can be a subject (S), an object of the preposition (OP), or a subject-verb completer (SVC).Most pronouns have a different form for when they are a subject (S) or not a subject, an object of the preposition (OP), or a subject-verb completer (SVC). The different forms are called cases.


Tool 41a:Use the subjective case (SC) when a pronoun is the subject.Tool 41b:Use the objective case (OC) when a pronoun is not a subject (S) but is an object of the preposition (OP) or a subject-verb completer (SVC).Tool 41c:Some pronouns never change their form, so we cannot tell by looking at them whether they are a subject (S), object of the preposition (OP), or a subject-verb completer (SVC). To know what they are we have to see what they are doing in the sentence.


Tool 42:When the verb (V) is one of the “be” verbs, a pronoun SVC has the same case as the subject (S) because this SVC and this subject (S) are the same person or thing.


Tool 43: Every pronoun and its referent must be singular or they must both be plural for number agreement, as in Tool 18. Also, every pronoun that is a subject must have the same number as its verb for number agreement.


Tool 44:Clauses and phrases are two main parts or structures of a sentence.Tool 44a: A clause is two or more words that go together and it always has one (and only one) subject-verb pair in it. Use your logic to decide what words go together as the whole clause.


Tool 44b: A phrase (like a prepositional phrase (PP)) is two or more words that go together, but it never has a subject-verb pair in it. Use your logic to decide what words go together as the whole phrase.Tool 44c: A prepositional phrase (PP) can be inside a clause.


Tool 45:There are only three kinds of clauses: dependent clauses (DC), independent clauses (IC), and relative clauses (RC). Tool 45a:A dependent clause (DC) (also called a “subordinate clause”) always starts with a dependent word (DW).


Tool 45b:In an independent clause (IC), there is no DW in front of the subject (S) and verb (V). The subject(S) and verb (V) are an independent subject-verb (ISV). Tool 45c: There is only one difference between an independent clause (IC) and a dependent clause (DC). A dependent clause (DC) always starts with a dependent word (DW). An independent clause (IC) never starts with a dependent word (DW).


Tool 46: You can identify a dependent word (DW) by these three tests:1. It is on the “List of Dependent Words.”2. When you ask the question “what?” after it, there is an answer.3. The answer to “what?” after the dependent word (DW) includes a subject-verb pair.Tool 46a: The dependent word “if” is tricky.“If” can be used for something that isn’t true and also for something whose truth we aren’t certain about.


Tool 47:A dependent clause (DC) at the start of the sentence has a comma after it. A dependent clause (DC) in the middle of the sentence has a comma both before it and after it. A dependent clause (DC) at the end of the sentence has no comma before it.


Tool 48:Most dependent clauses (DC) give extra information that is movable. They can be moved to other places and the sentence will still be grammatically correct. However, whatever starts a sentence will seem to be the most important idea in the sentence to the readers.


Tool 49: There are never two dependent words (DW) in a row for the same subject-verb. Every dependent word (DW) must have its own subject-verb in its own dependent clause.


Tool 50:The word “that” is a tricky word. You have to be careful to see how it is being used because it can be used in different ways in different sentences. It can also be used differently in the same sentence.


Tool 51:There is only one invisible or understood dependentword (DW). It is the tricky word “that.” An invisible “that” can never start a sentence.Tool 51a: “Whom” can be an invisible or understood dependent word (DW) like “that” when it is about a person.Tool 51b: Why is there an invisible dependent word (DW)? It has to do with the fact that English is a language that keeps changing. One change is that it is now common in English to leave out this dependent word (DW) as much as possible. Some grammar experts even call it “deadwood.” This means they think we should cut it out because it does not add anything important to a sentence. But you may use it in your writing if you want to. Either way is correct. It is your choice.

Tool 52:After a mental action verb (know, think, etc.), usually an invisible “that” is the dependent word (DW) that will follow.
tool 53 if you can replace that with this that is not a dependent word dw in that sentence
Tool 53:If you can replace “that” with “this,” “that” is not a dependent word (DW) in that sentence.

Tool 54:When a sentence looks like it has more than one independent subject-verb pair (ISV), try to add “that” before each subject-verb pair. If it makes sense, “that” is an invisible dependent word (DW) and must be used as a dependent word (DW).


Tool 55:There are only four kinds of sentences.Tool 55a: Simple Sentences: One independent clause (IC) without a dependent clause (DC) is a simple sentence. It has one and only one independent subject-verb (ISV).Tool 55b: Complex Sentences: A sentence with one and only one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses (DC) is a complex sentence.


Tool 55c: Compound Sentence: A sentence is a compound sentence when it has two independent clauses (IC) that are separated by a semicolon (;) or one of the other independent clause separators (ICS).Tool 55d: When one or both of the sentences in a compound sentence is a complex sentence, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence. There will be two independent clauses (IC) and one independent clause separator (ICS).


Tool 56: For sentences to be grammatically correct they must use both parts of this tool:Every sentence must have at least one independent clause (IC).All independent clauses (IC) must be separated from each other by one of the following eleven independent clause separators (ICS). These are the only independent clause separators (ICS).See Toolkit for descriptions of each ICS.


Tool 57: To prevent sentence crimes, the dependent clauses (DC) don’t matter. Only the independent clauses (IC) matter. You may have as many dependent clauses (DC) as you want. But you must use all the parts of this tool to be sure you have the correct number of independent clauses (IC).


Tool 57a: Every sentence must have at least one independent clause (IC).Tool 57b: Every independent clause (IC) must be correctly separated from every other independent clause (IC) by an independent clause separator (ICS).Tool 57c: Count the number of subject-verb pairs. That’s how many clauses there are. There can be only one independent clause (IC) on each side of an independent clause separator (ICS).


Tool 58: A sentence crime is committed whenever a sentence does not have an independent clause (IC). This crime is called a fragment.


Tool 59: If independent clauses (IC) are not separated at all, it is a sentence crime. This crime is called a run-on.


Tool 60: If there is only a comma between two independent clauses (IC), it is a sentence crime. This crime is called a comma splice.


Tool 61: A whole dependent clause (DC) can be a subject (S), a subject-verb completer (SVC), or an object of the preposition (OP).


Tool 62: When you add a subject-verb pair just to say what someone is thinking, feeling, or saying, these are just words alone (WA) and should not be analyzed as a subject-verb pair.


Tool 63: Some dependent words (DW)are special. They are special because in some sentences they relate or refer back to a word that comes before them. The word that a dependent clause (DC) relates or refers back to is its referent (or antecedent). that what whatever which whichever who whoever whom whomever whose


Tool 64: Some relative words (RW) can be both a dependent word and also the subject (S) of its relative clause (RC): that who whoever which whichever


Tool 65: Sometimes the relative word (RW) “that” will be invisible the same as the dependent word (DW) “that”. Use the visible form or the invisible form according to your own choice. Both ways are correct.


Tool 66: Do not analyze a relative word (RW) as a dependent word in a question that starts with that relative word (RW).


Tool 67: Four relative words have case. Their case depends on how they are used in the particular sentence.Subjective Case Objective Casewho whoever whom whomever


Tool 68: A relative word (RW) that is the subject (S) of its relative clause must have the same number as its referent for agreement of number. Its verb (V) must also have the same number.


Tool 70: When the relative clause does not follow its referent, it is called a misplaced modifier. This is a very serious mistake. To correct this mistake, be sure the relative clause comes immediately after its referent.


Tool 71: Unlike dependent clause (DC) commas, the relative clause (RC) commas have nothing to do with location Instead, relative clause commas have to do with the importance of the information in the clause: is the information essential to know exactly which person or thing the referent is?


Tool 72: Punctuate compound lists of three or more subjects (S), verbs (V), objects of prepositions (OP), and subject-verb completers (SVC) by this pattern: A, B, and C A, B, C, and D


Tool 73: When there are only two items in a list, there can be either a comma or a connector (C) (“and” “or” “but”) but never both a comma and the connector (C).


Tool 74: To see whether a comma belongs in a list, try using the word “and” instead. Wherever you can use “and” in a list, you may use a comma. If “and” does not make logical sense, then you must not use a comma.

tool 75 if even one item in a list has its own commas separate all the items with semicolons

Tool 75: If even one item in a list has its own commas, separate all the items with semicolons (;).


Tool 76:Adjectives (Adj) describe or tell about nouns. A noun is a person, place, thing, feeling, or idea. Nouns can be subjects, objects of prepositions, or subject-verb completers.Tool 76a: Adjectives(Adj) describe or tell “what kind,” “how many,” or “how it compares.”


Tool 78: Adjectives(Adj) can also go after the word(s) they describe. When they come after the word(s), they must have commas to separate them from the rest of the sentence. They are called appositives (App).


Tool 80: Adverbs (Adv) describe or tell about verbs (V) and verbals (Vbl).Tool 80a: Adverbs (Adv) describe or tell “how,” “when,” “where,” “how much” about verbs (V) or verbals (Vbl).


Tool 81: Adverbs (Adv) can go before or after the word or between the words they modify. Choose what you prefer.


Tool 82:If there is a subject-verb completer (SVC) after the verb (V), the adverbs (Adv) can come after the subject-verb completer (SVC).


Tool 83: When writers want to quotethe exact words said (or told, asked, stated, etc.) by someone, they must use quotationmarks. When readers see the quotation marks, they know the writer is reporting the exact words someone said. A comma separates the quoted words from the rest of the sentence.


Tool 88:Apostrophes are used for only three purposes:Tool 88a: For contractions: I’m (I am), it’s (it is), they’re (they are)Tool 88b:For possessives (except pronoun possessives).


Tool 89: Words end in “s” for only five reasons:Tool 89a: The word is normally spelled with an “s” at the end, for example: miss, this, bus.Tool 89b: Almost every verb (V) in the present tense with a singular (s) subject (S) that is not “I” or “you” has “s” at the end.


Tool 89c: When the verb (V) is the be verb, it ends in “s” in the past tense when the subject (S) is any singular subject (S) except “you.”Tool 89d: Many singular (s) nouns become plural (p) by adding an “s,” “es,” or “ies”:Tool 89e:When words are possessive, they usually end in “ ’s ” (man’s hat) or “ s’ ” (countries’ customs).


Tool 90: There are four more exceptions to the normal word order of S-V.Tool 90a: Often after “not…, neither” and “not…, nor” the order is V-S.Tool 90b: Usually between “not only” and “but also” the word order is V-S or HV-S-V.


Tool 90c: After “, and so” the word order is usually V-S. But this is correct only when the action that the subjects (S) are doing before and after the “, and so” is the same. In other words, “, and so” is saying that the subjects (S) are doing the same thing.Tool 90d: Sometimes when a prepositional phrase (PP) is in front, the word order is V-S. This exception is not used very often.


Tool 91: Self-referring case (SRC) pronouns are used to make it very clear about whom the writer is writing or to say that a noun is doing something for himself, herself, itself, etc. Self-referring case (SRC) pronouns can never be the subject (S) alone.


Tool 92: Some pronouns are always singular (s). Other pronouns are always plural (p). And other pronouns can be either singular (s) or plural (p) depending on the rest of the sentence.


Tool 94: Every subject also has person. This means the subject is either 1st person (I, we), 2nd person (you), or 3rd person (he, she, it, they; 3rd person is also everything and everyone that is not I, we, you).

tool 96 almost every verb in the 3 rd singular present adds s es or ies at the end

Tool 96: Almost every verb in the 3rd singular present adds “s,” “es,” or “ies” at the end.


Tool 98: Verbs that happen at the same time must have the same tense. If they happen at different times, they must have different tenses. This is tense agreement.


Tool 99: The “be” verb is the most irregular verb in English. There are three forms for the present tense (am, is, are). Also, it is the only verb with two forms for the past tense (was, were).


Tool 100:In a compound subject connected by “or,” the verb is singular or plural based on the number of the last subject before the verb.


Tool 101: English verbs have twelve common tenses. Each tense has a specific meaning, and writers must choose the tense that expresses their idea most accurately. (See Toolkit for descriptions of the twelve common tenses.)


Tool 102: In English there are three articles:a, an, the.Tool 102a: Articlesgo before almost every specific subject (S), subject-verb completer (SVC), and object of the preposition (OP).Tool 102b: Generalthings usually do not have an article.


Tool 102c: Articles usually go before a person’s title.Tool 102d:Articles usually do not go before the proper name of a person or place.Tool 102e: But the article usually does go beforethe proper name of a building or a structure.Tool 102f:When a nation’s name is actually just a description instead of a particular name, it must have an article. There is no article before the specific name.


Tool 103: Use “the” to mean “this or that specific one” (singular) or “these or those specific ones” (plural). “The” is called the definite article because we use it to mean this/that or these/those definite, specific noun or nouns.Tool 103a: Use “a” and “an” to mean “any” or “some sort of.” “A” and “an” are called indefinite articles because indefinite means we don’t know specifically who or what. “A” and “an” are always only singular.


Tool 104:Use “a” when the next word starts with a consonant: b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, and sometimes h—but only when the “h” has an “h” sound. Use “an” when the “h” is silent. This is to make pronunciation easier.Tool 104b: Use “an” when the next word starts with a vowel: a, e, i, o, and sometimes u—but only when the “u” sounds like “uh.”


Tool 105: When a verb-like word comes after “to,” normally use a root verbal (RVbl.) These two words together are an infinitive (Inf.)


Tool 106: When a verb-like word comes after any prepositions (P) except “to,” normally use the continuing verbal (CVbl).


Tool 109: There are different ways to say what you mean. Be sure you know exactly what you mean and what you want to say.