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  1. Convincing governments to invest in prevention: Reducing crime, Protecting rights Irvin Waller Professor, University of Ottawa iwaller@uottawa.cawww.lesslawmoreorder.com

  2. Shifting government policy from ¨justice¨ for offenders to rights for victims and taxpayers

  3. Less Law, More Order:Convincing governments to invest in crime prevention Rights to reliable knowledge Tough on crime is tough on rights of victims of crime and taxpayers Rights of women, young men and neighbourhoodsat risk Rights of voters to Shift from ¨pay for law¨ to ¨invest in order¨

  4. Audit Commission

  5. Sources of truth about preventing victimisationPrestigeous agencies have reviewed accumulation of meta-analyses of evaluations • United Nations • World Health Organization, 2002, 2004 • UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention, 1996, 2002 • Habitat – Safer Cities, 1996- • Authoritative Sources • National Research Council, 1998-2005 (USA) • British Inspectorate of Police, 1998 (UK) • Home Office and Treasury, 1997 (UK) • Report to US Congress, 1997 (USA) • Audit Commission, 1996 (UK)

  6. Sources of truth about preventing victimisationEvaluations were scientific studies of outcomes • Comparisons of outcomes following • those who experienced a ¨prevention¨ program tackling risk factors (remedy for negative life experience) • With those who experienced the ¨standard¨ system of police, courts and corrections and ¨standard¨ social welfare and education programs • Many experiments using ¨Random Control Trials¨ • Many using long term follow-up studies (longitudinal cohorts) • Some using cost-benefit analyses

  7. Less Law, More Order:Convincing governments to invest in crime prevention Rights to reliable knowledge Tough on crime is tough on rights of victims of crime and taxpayers Rights of women, young men and neighbourhoodsat risk Rights of voters to Shift from ¨pay for law¨ to ¨invest in order¨

  8. Too Many Victims of CrimeIn round numbers, each year in a city of 100,000 persons

  9. Rate of adult incarceration per 100,000 total population Toomanyprisoners

  10. Toomanytaxesmispentonpolice, lawyers and prisoners

  11. Toomany false claims, false solutions Violent Crime Recorded by New York Police Department 1980-2000

  12. Toomanyvictims, not reporting to police

  13. Less Law, More Order:Convincing governments to invest in crime prevention Rights to reliable knowledge Tough on crime is tough on rights of victims of crime and taxpayers Rights of women, young men and neighbourhoodsat risk Rights of voters to Shift from ¨pay for law¨ to ¨invest in order¨

  14. Make youth flourish rather than crime

  15. According to longitudinal studies, youth offend more persistently if • Born into a family in relative poverty and inadequate housing; • Brought up with inconsistent and uncaring parenting; a witness of intra-familial violence; • Limited social and cognitive abilities; • Presenting behavioural problems in primary school; • Excluded from, or dropping-out of school; • Frequently unemployed and with relatively limited income; • Living with a culture of violence on television and in the neighbourhood

  16. Large scale data sets confirm social, situational and location of crime • 5% of youth account for 55% of offences • Longitudinal studies confirm 5% risk factors such as relative poverty, ineffective parenting and dropping out of school • 4% of victims account for 44% of victimisation • Victimisation studies confirm 4% risk life routines such as not guarding goods, vulnerable to opportunity, close to offenders • Hot spot locations for drugs and other offences • Police statistics confirm that hotspots concentrate offenders and victims geographically

  17. Crime concentrated in areas of concentrated social disadvantage

  18. Proven strategies for reducing crimeYouth Inclusion Programme • Identify 50 most at-risk youth (13-16yr) living in high-crime neighbourhoods • Provide them with >5 hrs/wk of positive programming: • mentoring, sports and recreation, skills training in literacy, anger management, dealing with gangs and drugs, etc. Impacts: 72 high crime & deprived estates in England & Wales • Reduced school expulsions by 27% • Reduced youth arrests by 65% • Reduced overall crime in neighbourhoods by 16% to 27%

  19. Proven strategies for reducing crimePromote high school completion in disadvantaged teens 5 US Cities • after school activities with mentoring • tutoring, computer skills training, event planning, volunteering, college/employment planning, etc. • small remuneration for participation (~$1/hr) • match money earned towards college fund Impacts: RCT • Reduced high school dropout by 27% • Increased attendance at post-secondary education by 26% • Reduced youth arrests by 71% over 4 years

  20. Violence against women Preventing violence against women by investing in promising strategies and evaluating outcomes • Tackling risk factors in school-aged youth, for example by: • Addressing bullying in school and dating and peer violence by promoting healthy relationships • The Fourth R and Roots of Empathy change attitudes by 30% and more • Integrated multi-agency response involving social services, law enforcement, commuity agencies and courts • High-level leadership and commitment • Mayor’s task force on FV, • Strong societal message endorsing anti-violence norms, expands public awareness

  21. Active Participation of ResidentsIntentional reductions in break-ins • Seattle (1970) • Mayor created Law and Justice Planning Office • City diagnosis, plan, priorities, implementation, evaluation • Empowering neighbours to target causes • Paid workers to do training of neighbours • 61% reduction in residential burglary in RCT • Kirkholt Experiment, UK (1988) • Academic partnered with police and probation • Diagnosis, plan, implementation, evaluation • Empowering potential victims to target causes (cocoon neighborhood watch - avoid repeat victimisation) • Probation focused on persistent offenders • 75% reduction vs national increase(in trend analysis)

  22. Smart policing combined with smart prevention Intentional reduction in youth murders City of Boston Collaboration between law enforcement (Boston PD, DEA plus), youth street workers, families and Harvard Gang members are young people in trouble: they do not want to die; they need help from adults. Realistic alternatives to the life of violence in the streets – school completion, job training, jobs Unpleasant consequences for those who choose violence Impact (within 2 years – NB crime rates were dropping in US but over decade): 71% reduction in homicides committed by youth aged 24 and under 70% reduction in gun assaults for all ages (See also SACSI and Safe Neighborhoods) 22

  23. World report on violence and health

  24. Multi-sector governance to tackle multiple risk factors

  25. Less Law, More Order:Convincing governments to invest in crime prevention Rights to reliable knowledge Tough on crime is tough on rights of victims of crime and taxpayers Rights of women, young men and neighbourhoodsat risk Rights of voters to Shift from ¨pay for law¨ to ¨invest in order¨

  26. Factors considered as causes of crime in Britain today

  27. What works to reduce victimization:One dollar for prevention equals Seven dollars for mass incarceration

  28. Chapter 8 Shift from ¨Pay for Law¨ to ¨Invest in Order¨ • Actions to Prevent Crime Based on Truth • Invest in Youth in the Community • Stop Violence against Women and Children • Help Neighbours Watch and Design to Reduce Crime • Tackle Risk Factors with both Prevention and Enforcement • Do Justice to Support for Victims

  29. Chapter 8 Shift from ¨Pay for Law¨ to ¨Invest in Order¨ • Crime Bills for Office for Crime Prevention • Federal incentives and State Leadership to Shift from Reaction to Crime Reduction and Victim Protection • Over 5 years add equivalent of 10 percent of Reactive Criminal Justice to Organize for Crime Reduction and Victim Protection • Support Local Government Leadership to Deliver Crime Prevention • Develop and Train Crime Prevention Professionals • Establish Data on Risk Factors, Victimization and Location

  30. Less Law, More Order frames the issue in terms of • Voters and taxpayers are (potential) crime victims • 1 in 4 willbevictims of commoncrimeeachyear • 1 in 3 womenwillbevictims of sexual assault in life time • The best return on investments over time • 3 year plan to produce 50% reductions in 5 to 10 years • Everyadditional Euro for standardreactionmatchedwith Euro for targetedprograms for youth, families, women and neighbourhoods. • Publicopinion: • Understandsthatcrime has multiple causes – parenting, schools, alcohol, drugs, sanctioning, police • Prefersinvestments in education, job training and jobs to more expendituresonpolice, courts and corrections.

  31. Alberta (Canadian Province) policy to win elections and reduce crime • A three pronged approach that is acceptable to public • Combination of enforcement, treatment and prevention can be part of a successful electoral campaign • Funds to be invested in a broad range of areas from early childhood, youth, aboriginal, family violence, data, municipalities and more • A strategic plan to coordinate different ministries • a secretariat with senior full time participation from 9 key ministries to ensure a cross government focus on crime reduction and community safety • Invest in what is proven to work and evaluate results • Increased funding for prevention to match enforcement • $500 million over 3 years (3 million population) • It matches increases in expenditures on law enforcement and corrections with investments in prevention.

  32. For the harm done by the offender, he is responsible For the harm done because we do not use the best knowledge when that is available to us, we are responsible