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The Great Depression & The Rise of Totalitarianism. Unit 9 Notes. Important Information for Unit 9. Unit 9 Resources Workbook p. 201-218 Textbook p. 804-812 (Ch. 21-1) What Every Student Should Know (see website) Notes (see website) Key Dates Unit 9 Key Terms Quiz – Wednesday Jan. 29

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The Great Depression & The Rise of Totalitarianism

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    1. The Great Depression&The Rise of Totalitarianism Unit 9 Notes

    2. Important Information for Unit 9 • Unit 9 Resources • Workbook p. 201-218 • Textbook p. 804-812 (Ch. 21-1) • What Every Student Should Know (see website) • Notes (see website) • Key Dates • Unit 9 Key Terms Quiz – Wednesday Jan. 29 • Homework – p. 207-208 1-5 & p. 217 1-5 – Thursday Jan. 30 • Unit 9 Test – Friday Jan. 31

    3. depression on margin Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal inflation Nazi Party totalitarian state censorship fascism Black Shirts Munich Conference Mein Kampf communism Enabling Act anti-Semitism Five-Year Plans Great Purge collectivization Adolf Hitler Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Unit 9 Key Terms (p. 201-216)

    4. Great Depression Pre-Test • The stock market crash marked the beginning of the Great Depression. • Historians and economists agree on the main causes of the Great Depression. • The United States was the only nation in the 1930s that had severe economic troubles. • President Hoover made many efforts to end the Great Depression. • Franklin D. Roosevelt inspired confidence in Americans with his proposal for the New Deal.

    5. Great Depression Pre-Test • All U.S. citizens showed full support for the New Deal to end the Depression. • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt encouraged President Roosevelt to develop a second New Deal. • The New Deal had no effect on labor and employment in the United States. • The New Deal plan included efforts to conserve and protect natural resources. • The Great Depression caused a complete halt in the active cultural life of the Roaring Twenties.

    6. Roots of the Depression • the depression was international in scope – not just in America • many economic problems developed in Europe following World War I: • rebuilding was very expensive • wartime spending left countries stretched financially • unemployment was very high – millions of men returned home from war to find that there were no jobs – massive amounts of war material were no longer needed • Germany was particularly hurt by reparations and the loss of the Ruhr Valley (Germany’s main industrial region) to the French • Germany’s response was to print more money which led to incredible rates of inflation • as a result, European nations did not buy or invest in foreign goods, including those from the U.S.

    7. Depression in America • America in the 1920s experienced an artificial economic boom • production remained as high as during the war expecting trade with Europe to continue • farmers continued to produce at high levels but no longer had a European market to sell to • even though wages, in general, were low, Americans bought an abundance of products on credit, including stocks bought on margin • the increase in stock purchases quickly drove the value of the stocks to artificially high levels • eventually sales decreased (Europeans did not buy and Americans began to slow down dramatically) and massive surpluses began to build up • creditors began demanding immediate repayment of loans and stocks bought on margin

    8. The Stock Market Crash • in an attempt to pay their creditors, investors began selling off their shares of stock and took their money out of the banks • this greatly devalued the stock and led to Black Tuesday – October 29, 1929 – the day the stock market crashed • there were “runs on the banks” – people went to withdraw all their money and the banks simply did not have it so they had to close down the bank • at the same time, banks were “calling the loan” – demanding full payments of debts which people did not have • unemployment and homelessness increased • banks and businesses closed • economic problems stemming from the stock market crash in the U.S. only made the worldwide economic situation even worse

    9. The Deepening Depression • the U.S. had been the chief creditor of Europe (we loaned them a lot of money) since the end of World War I • Germany especially relied on loans from the U.S. • as the U.S. economy worsened, they called on loans to European countries to be repaid and at the same time, stopped loaning them any more money • European economies, Germany’s especially, only got worse • worldwide investments in places like Africa, Asia, and South America decreased and the suffering continued to spread

    10. Reactions to the Depression • most nations became increasingly isolationist – thinking only about their own problems • in some democratic countries, new laws were passed to try and improve things • in some countries, totalitarian dictators used the situation to take control • in the United States: • Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected in 1932 and almost immediately began passing laws that became known as the New Deal • the New Deal focused on relief and reform in the form of more government jobs and more government assistance • these programs greatly enhanced the national government’s role in the economy and in the lives of individuals • for the first time in American history, direct relief from the government was a significant part of everyday life

    11. Reactions to the Depression • in Britain: • they tried to protect domestic industries by dropping the gold standard and nationalizing some industries and raised taxes • in Germany: • the Nazi Party used the depression to gain popularity • Adolf Hitler took advantage of economic anxiety, political discontent and the democratic government of Germany • in 1933, Hitler was appointed (not elected) Chancellor and used his position to eliminate opponents and establish totalitarian control • Hitler repeatedly denounced the Treaty of Versailles and the public (who also hated it) supported him • in Italy • fascists under Benito Mussolini used the failing economy to gain popularity • in Japan • the bad economy allowed for militarists led by Hideki Tojo to take over

    12. Totalitarianism

    13. Forms of Totalitarianism • fascism – radical racial nationalism that calls for an all-powerful dictator supported by the military (Mussolini, Hitler) • communism – radical socialism in which the government controls production, owns all property, and controls all social activity (Stalin) • militarism – system of government in which a nation puts its military above all else and uses it to achieve national goals (Tojo)

    14. Fascism in Italy • Italy was not happy with the Treaty of Versailles – they wanted a large amount of land • democratic government blamed for economic problems • Benito Mussolinifounded the Fascist Party in 1919 • his supporters, the Black Shirts, attacked his opponents • Mussolini became Prime Minister in 1922 and would begin to build a totalitarian state • he became “Il Duce” (The Leader) and used secret police and censorship to maintain power

    15. Nazism in Germany • Germany was devastated by World War I and furious with the Treaty of Versailles • many blamed the Weimar Republic, the democratic government of Germany, for the economic depression as well as for the Treaty of Versailles • Adolf Hitlerwas a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party or Nazi Party– a fascist group who opposed the Weimar Republic • the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in 1923 – Hitler ended up in jail where he wrote Mein Kampf(My Struggle)

    16. Nazism in Germany • in Mein Kampf, Hitler claimed that Germans, or Aryans as he called them, were the master race • he also detailed his goals of uniting all German speaking people, regaining territory, and eliminating the Jews • by 1932, the Nazis were the largest political party in Germany • in 1933, German president Paul von Hindenburg was pressured into appointing Hitler to the position of chancellor • also in 1933, Hitler passed the Enabling Act which gave him dictatorial powers

    17. Nazism in Germany • Hitler became known as “der Führer” (The Leader) • he focused on remilitarizing Germany (in violation of the Treaty of Versailles) • he created a totalitarian state through the Gestapo (secret police), outlawing opposition to the Nazis, propaganda, and controlling the economy

    18. Militarism in Japan • Japan lost large amounts of income during the Great Depression • it also experienced bad harvests at home • military leaders (including Hideki Tojo) suggested expansionism as a solution • Japan invaded Manchuria (China) in 1931 • the League of Nations voiced disapproval but did nothing and Japan withdrew from the league in 1933 • Japan attacked the rest of China in 1937

    19. Stalinism in the USSR • Joseph Stalinbecame the leader of the Soviet Union in 1928 after being general secretary of the Communist Party • Stalin exiled his biggest rival, Leon Trotsky, in 1929 • he rapidly industrialized the country • he used the secret police to monitor nearly everything and he censored all sources of information to maintain power

    20. Stalinism in the USSR • during the Great Purge, Stalin removed political opponents (some even from his own party) and had them imprisoned or executed • he implemented a command economy where the government made all decisions • his Five-Year Plans sought to transform the economy from agricultural to industrial as quickly as possible • industrialization came rapidly but there were shortages of consumer goods

    21. Stalinism in the USSR • Stalin also forced the collectivizationof farms (combined small privately owned farms into huge government owned farms) • those who resisted collectivization were imprisoned or executed • also in retaliation, Stalin caused forced starvations in which millions died • under Stalin, people had no rights of any kind

    22. Reactions to Totalitarianism • Italian, Japanese, and German aggression led to World War II • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 • Germany remilitarized and occupied the Rhineland • Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the AxisAlliance in 1936 • Germany and Italy helped fascist Francisco Franco come to power in Spain in 1936

    23. Reactions to Totalitarianism • the U.S. declared itself neutral and refused to send money or weapons to anyone involved in war • France and Great Britain hoped the policy of appeasement (giving in to the “reasonable demands” of an unhappy nation to avoid war) would work • Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 • at the Munich Conference, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia in 1938 and it was given to him • he would later take all of Czechoslovakia and Italy would invade Albania

    24. Reactions to Totalitarianism • despite all of the violations of the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations did nothing to stop totalitarian aggression • France and Great Britain finally abandoned appeasement in September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland and started World War II

    25. Benito Mussolini

    26. The Black Shirts

    27. Adolf Hitler

    28. Nazi Party

    29. Mein Kampf

    30. Paul von Hindenburg

    31. Gestapo

    32. Nazi Propaganda

    33. Militarists in Japan

    34. Joseph Stalin

    35. The Great Purge

    36. Collectivization