The Great Depression & The Rise of Totalitarianism. Unit 9 Notes. Important Information for Unit 9. Unit 9 Resources Workbook p. 201-218 Textbook p. 804-812 (Ch. 21-1) What Every Student Should Know (see website) Notes (see website) Key Dates Unit 9 Key Terms Quiz – Wednesday Jan. 29
The Great Depression&The Rise of Totalitarianism Unit 9 Notes
Important Information for Unit 9 • Unit 9 Resources • Workbook p. 201-218 • Textbook p. 804-812 (Ch. 21-1) • What Every Student Should Know (see website) • Notes (see website) • Key Dates • Unit 9 Key Terms Quiz – Wednesday Jan. 29 • Homework – p. 207-208 1-5 & p. 217 1-5 – Thursday Jan. 30 • Unit 9 Test – Friday Jan. 31
depression on margin Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal inflation Nazi Party totalitarian state censorship fascism Black Shirts Munich Conference Mein Kampf communism Enabling Act anti-Semitism Five-Year Plans Great Purge collectivization Adolf Hitler Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Unit 9 Key Terms (p. 201-216)
Great Depression Pre-Test • The stock market crash marked the beginning of the Great Depression. • Historians and economists agree on the main causes of the Great Depression. • The United States was the only nation in the 1930s that had severe economic troubles. • President Hoover made many efforts to end the Great Depression. • Franklin D. Roosevelt inspired confidence in Americans with his proposal for the New Deal.
Great Depression Pre-Test • All U.S. citizens showed full support for the New Deal to end the Depression. • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt encouraged President Roosevelt to develop a second New Deal. • The New Deal had no effect on labor and employment in the United States. • The New Deal plan included efforts to conserve and protect natural resources. • The Great Depression caused a complete halt in the active cultural life of the Roaring Twenties.
Roots of the Depression • the depression was international in scope – not just in America • many economic problems developed in Europe following World War I: • rebuilding was very expensive • wartime spending left countries stretched financially • unemployment was very high – millions of men returned home from war to find that there were no jobs – massive amounts of war material were no longer needed • Germany was particularly hurt by reparations and the loss of the Ruhr Valley (Germany’s main industrial region) to the French • Germany’s response was to print more money which led to incredible rates of inflation • as a result, European nations did not buy or invest in foreign goods, including those from the U.S.
Depression in America • America in the 1920s experienced an artificial economic boom • production remained as high as during the war expecting trade with Europe to continue • farmers continued to produce at high levels but no longer had a European market to sell to • even though wages, in general, were low, Americans bought an abundance of products on credit, including stocks bought on margin • the increase in stock purchases quickly drove the value of the stocks to artificially high levels • eventually sales decreased (Europeans did not buy and Americans began to slow down dramatically) and massive surpluses began to build up • creditors began demanding immediate repayment of loans and stocks bought on margin
The Stock Market Crash • in an attempt to pay their creditors, investors began selling off their shares of stock and took their money out of the banks • this greatly devalued the stock and led to Black Tuesday – October 29, 1929 – the day the stock market crashed • there were “runs on the banks” – people went to withdraw all their money and the banks simply did not have it so they had to close down the bank • at the same time, banks were “calling the loan” – demanding full payments of debts which people did not have • unemployment and homelessness increased • banks and businesses closed • economic problems stemming from the stock market crash in the U.S. only made the worldwide economic situation even worse
The Deepening Depression • the U.S. had been the chief creditor of Europe (we loaned them a lot of money) since the end of World War I • Germany especially relied on loans from the U.S. • as the U.S. economy worsened, they called on loans to European countries to be repaid and at the same time, stopped loaning them any more money • European economies, Germany’s especially, only got worse • worldwide investments in places like Africa, Asia, and South America decreased and the suffering continued to spread
Reactions to the Depression • most nations became increasingly isolationist – thinking only about their own problems • in some democratic countries, new laws were passed to try and improve things • in some countries, totalitarian dictators used the situation to take control • in the United States: • Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected in 1932 and almost immediately began passing laws that became known as the New Deal • the New Deal focused on relief and reform in the form of more government jobs and more government assistance • these programs greatly enhanced the national government’s role in the economy and in the lives of individuals • for the first time in American history, direct relief from the government was a significant part of everyday life
Reactions to the Depression • in Britain: • they tried to protect domestic industries by dropping the gold standard and nationalizing some industries and raised taxes • in Germany: • the Nazi Party used the depression to gain popularity • Adolf Hitler took advantage of economic anxiety, political discontent and the democratic government of Germany • in 1933, Hitler was appointed (not elected) Chancellor and used his position to eliminate opponents and establish totalitarian control • Hitler repeatedly denounced the Treaty of Versailles and the public (who also hated it) supported him • in Italy • fascists under Benito Mussolini used the failing economy to gain popularity • in Japan • the bad economy allowed for militarists led by Hideki Tojo to take over
Forms of Totalitarianism • fascism – radical racial nationalism that calls for an all-powerful dictator supported by the military (Mussolini, Hitler) • communism – radical socialism in which the government controls production, owns all property, and controls all social activity (Stalin) • militarism – system of government in which a nation puts its military above all else and uses it to achieve national goals (Tojo)
Fascism in Italy • Italy was not happy with the Treaty of Versailles – they wanted a large amount of land • democratic government blamed for economic problems • Benito Mussolinifounded the Fascist Party in 1919 • his supporters, the Black Shirts, attacked his opponents • Mussolini became Prime Minister in 1922 and would begin to build a totalitarian state • he became “Il Duce” (The Leader) and used secret police and censorship to maintain power
Nazism in Germany • Germany was devastated by World War I and furious with the Treaty of Versailles • many blamed the Weimar Republic, the democratic government of Germany, for the economic depression as well as for the Treaty of Versailles • Adolf Hitlerwas a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party or Nazi Party– a fascist group who opposed the Weimar Republic • the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in 1923 – Hitler ended up in jail where he wrote Mein Kampf(My Struggle)
Nazism in Germany • in Mein Kampf, Hitler claimed that Germans, or Aryans as he called them, were the master race • he also detailed his goals of uniting all German speaking people, regaining territory, and eliminating the Jews • by 1932, the Nazis were the largest political party in Germany • in 1933, German president Paul von Hindenburg was pressured into appointing Hitler to the position of chancellor • also in 1933, Hitler passed the Enabling Act which gave him dictatorial powers
Nazism in Germany • Hitler became known as “der Führer” (The Leader) • he focused on remilitarizing Germany (in violation of the Treaty of Versailles) • he created a totalitarian state through the Gestapo (secret police), outlawing opposition to the Nazis, propaganda, and controlling the economy
Militarism in Japan • Japan lost large amounts of income during the Great Depression • it also experienced bad harvests at home • military leaders (including Hideki Tojo) suggested expansionism as a solution • Japan invaded Manchuria (China) in 1931 • the League of Nations voiced disapproval but did nothing and Japan withdrew from the league in 1933 • Japan attacked the rest of China in 1937
Stalinism in the USSR • Joseph Stalinbecame the leader of the Soviet Union in 1928 after being general secretary of the Communist Party • Stalin exiled his biggest rival, Leon Trotsky, in 1929 • he rapidly industrialized the country • he used the secret police to monitor nearly everything and he censored all sources of information to maintain power
Stalinism in the USSR • during the Great Purge, Stalin removed political opponents (some even from his own party) and had them imprisoned or executed • he implemented a command economy where the government made all decisions • his Five-Year Plans sought to transform the economy from agricultural to industrial as quickly as possible • industrialization came rapidly but there were shortages of consumer goods
Stalinism in the USSR • Stalin also forced the collectivizationof farms (combined small privately owned farms into huge government owned farms) • those who resisted collectivization were imprisoned or executed • also in retaliation, Stalin caused forced starvations in which millions died • under Stalin, people had no rights of any kind
Reactions to Totalitarianism • Italian, Japanese, and German aggression led to World War II • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 • Germany remilitarized and occupied the Rhineland • Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the AxisAlliance in 1936 • Germany and Italy helped fascist Francisco Franco come to power in Spain in 1936
Reactions to Totalitarianism • the U.S. declared itself neutral and refused to send money or weapons to anyone involved in war • France and Great Britain hoped the policy of appeasement (giving in to the “reasonable demands” of an unhappy nation to avoid war) would work • Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 • at the Munich Conference, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia in 1938 and it was given to him • he would later take all of Czechoslovakia and Italy would invade Albania
Reactions to Totalitarianism • despite all of the violations of the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations did nothing to stop totalitarian aggression • France and Great Britain finally abandoned appeasement in September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland and started World War II