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University of Wisconsin, Extension, Outreach, Engagement: Observations from my Experience Gerry Campbell, Professor and Extension Specialist. UW-Madison/Extension, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics March 5, 2008.

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University of Wisconsin, Extension, Outreach, Engagement: Observations from my ExperienceGerry Campbell, Professor and Extension Specialist

UW-Madison/Extension, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics

March 5, 2008


“A system lives in its own world, a world whose meaning it has made. It becomes who it is bywhat it has chosen to be. Every system takes form from the self it has created.…..Identity, then is another essential condition for organization. It is the self of the system thatcompels it toward particular actions and behaviors. It is the self that defines meaning. It is theself that invites people to change or compels them to resist.

Margaret Wheatly and Myron Kellner-Rogers, p. 851,

A Simpler Way, Berret-Koehler, SanFrancisco, 1996, 135 pp.


March 5,2008 Professor and Extension Specialist, UW-Madison/Extension (55% Extension)

  • July 1995 Prof and Ext Spec. AAE/ CCED (55%, EXT, 30% Teaching, 15% Research
  • Dec. 1991, Vice Chancellor, UWEX
  • Sept 1991, Act. Vice Chancellor UWEX
  • Sept. 1990, Assoc. Dean, UWEX, Coop. Extension
  • Sept. 1984-85, Visiting Prof., Applied Econ., Univ. of Minnesota
  • July 1989 Professor, Agricultural Economics
  • July 1979 Assoc. Professor, Agricultural Economics
  • April 1973, Asst. Profesor, Agricultural Economics, UW- Madison and UW-Extension
  • Ph. D. Michigan State Univ., Agr. Economics, 1973 MA Economics, 1972
  • M.S. Agr. Econ. New Mexico State Univ. 1969
  • B.S. Agronomy, The Ohio State University, 1967
  • Nov. 30, 1945, Born at home on small family farm


1838 The state territorial legislature passes a bill to establish a

University of Wisconsin “at or near Madison, the seat of government.”

July 26, 1848 Wisconsin’s first governor, Nelson Dewey, signs an

incorporation act creating the University of Wisconsin and investing

its government in a board of regents.

1863 First women students admitted.

1866 Legislature designates the UW as the Wisconsin land-grant institution.

Land Grant Act 1862… the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least

one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific

and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning

as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures

of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of

the industrial classes on the several pursuits and professions in life.



1892 Charles R. Van Hise receives first UW Ph.D.

1894 Regents defend a UW professor by adopting the sifting and

winnowing statement: “Whatever may be the limitations which

trammel inquiry elsewhere, we believe that the great State University of

Wisconsin shall ever encourage that continual and fearless sifting and

winnowing by which alone the truth may be found.”

AAUP 1915 statement of principles of academic freedom. It includes this summarizing


It is clear, then, that the university cannot perform its threefold funtion (sic) without

accepting and enforcing to the fullest extent the principle of academic freedom.

The responsibility of the university as a whole is to the community at large, and any

restriction upon the freedom of the instructor is bound to react injuriously upon the

efficiency and the morale of the institution, and therefore ultimately upon the interests

of the community.



1885 first Legislative Appropriation. The first legislative appropriation

of $5,000 to the University of Wisconsin College of Agriculture for the

establishment of Farmers’ Institutes came in 1885

Hatch Act. In 1887, the federal Hatch Act provided funds to

establish a system of experiment stations in cooperation with

land-grant colleges to promote solid research base for a scientific

agriculture and home economics program.

Teachers’ Institutes. In 1888, the Legislature authorized statewide

Teachers’ Institutes to be conducted by Extension

Mechanics Institutes. In 1890, the first series of mechanics institutes

were held in Racine. In 1901 they were revived as an engineering summer

school. The "new" institutes’ success came with the addition of practical and

relevant teaching, which replaced the scientific theory approach of the 1890’s.


Babcock Butterfat Test. 1890, Professor S. M. Babcock announced the

invention of a simple, quick and accurate device to test the butterfat content

of milk. Babcock’s refusal to patent the device for personal gain and his

decision to freely share the test with the state’s dairy industry set the

tone for the extension of University resources to the people of Wisconsin.

Lectures and Correspondence Courses. In 1891, the University created

three new extension programs: lecture courses in general subjects, courses

on industrial subjects for working people, and correspondence courses–

the beginning of Extension’s Independent Study program. Extension

teaching and correspondence work were added to the residence teaching

loads of UW-Madison faculty.


1904 Charles Van Hise, president of the university, declares that

“the beneficent influence of the university [be] available to every home in

the state,” later articulated as the “Wisconsin Idea.”

Extension division is created campus has agricultural college extension and

General Extension

1914 - Smith Lever Act That in order to aid in diffusing among the people of the

United States useful and practical information on subjects relating to agriculture and

home economics, and to encourage the application of the same, there may be

inaugurated in connection with the college or colleges in each State now receiving,

or which may here-after receive, the benefits of the Act of Congress approved

July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled

"An Act donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide

colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts"


1925 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is chartered to control

patenting and patent income on UW inventions.

1946 Soldiers returning from World War II help to nearly triple the UW’s

enrollment from its 1944–45 level, sparking decades-long expansion of the

faculty and the physical space on campus.

1965 University Extension Merger. In 1965-66, the merger of the several

Extension units of the UW-Madison created one integrated unit: University

Extension, headed by a chancellor. The outreach units merged included

the Cooperative Extension Service of the College of Agriculture,

the University Extension Division, WHA Radio/TV, and the

Geological and Natural History Survey, all formerly from the


1971 Legislature establishes the University of Wisconsin System, merging the University of Wisconsin and the Wisconsin State University system. UW-Extension Becomes a separate institution.

1973, the Board of Regents policy on outreach assigned UW-Extension

with responsibility to lead, coordinate, plan and administer a

Systemwide extension function with all institutions of the UW System.

1982 Regent Policy. Following a two-year study of Extension, the 1982 Board of Regents Policy on Extension reaffirmed the importance of the Wisconsin Idea and mandated continuation of UW-Extension as an institution, along with integration of the extension function with the programs and faculties of the other UW institutions. UW-Extension was internally reorganized so that program and support units with similar funding, functions, and clientele were separated by three divisions: Cooperative Extension, General Extension, and Telecommunications. Integration with all UW institutions was implemented by July 1985.


Defining Scholarly EngagementBeyond Outreach to Scholarly EngagementUMassAmherst, October 22, 2007 R. Sandmann, Associate ProfessorDepartment of Lifelong Education, Administration, and Policy, University of GeorgiaPh.D. in Adult and Continuing Education/Business ManagementThe University of Wisconsin at Madison

carnegie classification
Carnegie Classification…

Community Engagement describes the collaboration between higher education institutions and their larger communities (local, regional/state, national, global) for the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and resources in a context of partnership and reciprocity.

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2006



Knowledge Translation

Community-based Scholarship

Knowledge Transfer

Civically Engaged

Knowledge Exchange

Public Engagement

Scholarship of Engagement


Service Outreach Engagement

Degree of academic/intellectual influence and influence of partners

engagement and service
Engagement and Service
  • University engagement is direct, two-way interaction with external constituencies through the development, exchange, and application of knowledge, information, and expertise for mutual benefit. Engagement activities may be initiated by community partners or by University faculty, staff, or students
  • Service is an initiative generated by the institution or institutional representatives in which knowledge, information, and expertise is provided for the benefit of external constituencies.  Service initiatives may be generated in response to requests from an external constituent, but do not imply a mutually beneficial exchange

University of Southern Indiana, 2005

  • Application and provision of institutional resources for community use with benefits to both campus and community
    • Extension program
    • Training programs
    • Professional Development Centers
    • Cultural officers
    • Library Services
    • Technology
    • Faculty Consultations
    • Others….

Carnegie Foundation, 2008

engagement as a scholarly expression
Engagement As a Scholarly Expression
  • Two tracks-institutional civic engagement & SOE
  • Evolving a distinctive scholarly expression
  • Two grounding principles
    • Mutual benefits
    • Reciprocal partnerships and integration of teaching, research, and service
  • Scholarly engagement, community engaged scholarship, public scholarship
    • Principles of engagement & standards of scholarship
five practices of scholarly engagment

Five Practices of Scholarly Engagment

Barker, D. (2004). The Scholarship of Engagement: A Taxonomy of Five Emerging Practices. JHEO

scholarly engagement
Scholarly Engagement

Scholarly Engagement is the creation, integration, application and transmission of knowledge for the benefits of external audiences and the University and occurs in all areas of the University Mission: research, teaching and service. The quality and value of Scholarly Engagement is determined by academic peers and community partners.

UMass Faculty Senate Outreach Council, 2006

what is scholarly engagement
What is Scholarly Engagement?
  • Scholarship – What
  • Engaged Scholarship – How
  • For the Common, Public Good – Toward What End
scholarly engagement23
Scholarly Engagement
  • Scholarship—practices that cut across the categories of academic scholarship (discovery, teaching, application & integration) +
  • Engagement—reciprocal, collaborative relationships with partners external to the university. (Boyer)
  • Scholarly engagement consists of
    • Research, teaching, integration and application scholarship that
    • Incorporates reciprocal practices of civic engagement into the production of knowledge. (Baker, 2004)
new approaches to knowledge production and research
New Approaches to Knowledge Production and Research

Mode I– traditional– pure, disciplinary, homogeneous, expert-led, hierarchical, peer reviewed, university-based

  • Mode ll –applied, problem-centered, transdisciplinary social and economic contexts, heterogeneous, hybrid, demand-driven, entrepreneurial, network-embedded, not necessarily let by universities Gibbons, et al. (1994)
quadrant model of scientific research
Quadrant Model of Scientific Research

Research is inspired by:

Consideration of use? No Yes

Pure basic research


Use-inspired research (Pasteur)


Quest for fundamental understanding?

Pure applied research



Stokes, D. (1997). Pasteur’s quadrant

quality evaluation criteria
Quality—Evaluation Criteria
  • Goals/questions
  • Context of theory, literature, best practices
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Communication/dissemination
  • Reflective critique

National Review Board Scholarship of Engagement, (2000)

community engaged scholar
Community-Engaged Scholar…
  • is one who does community-engaged scholarship which is teaching, discovery, integration, application and engagement that involves the faculty member in a mutually beneficial partnership with the community and has the following characteristics: clear goals, adequate preparation, appropriate methods, significant results, effective presentation, reflective critique, rigor and peer-review.

CCPH Kellogg Commission, 2005

scott peters on educational organizing
Scott Peters on Educational Organizing
  • When the question of what Extension educators do is asked, the answer typically includes a list of such things as planning and developing programs, nonformal teaching, facilitating meetings and community forums, providing technical expertise, and applying research-based knowledge to the problems of individuals, families, businesses, and communities. But something important is usually missing from such lists.
scott peters on educational organizing30
Scott Peters on Educational Organizing
  • But what if there were a way of understanding and practicing organizing that is deeply educational, that fits squarely within the historical tradition of Extension education, and that involves a practice of politics that is not negative and inappropriate for Extension educators to engage in?

Our ability to answer this question has a special urgency in connection with recent calls for "engagement" that have land-grant colleges and universities searching for ways to develop partnerships between universities and communities for broad civic purposes. The Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities recently defined engagement as "two-way partnerships, reciprocal relationships between university and community, defined by mutual respect for the strengths of each," where the "purpose of engagement is not to provide the university's superior expertise to the community, but to encourage joint academic-community definitions of problems, solutions, and success" (Kellogg Commission, 1998, pp. 30, 29).

scott peters on educational organizing31
Scott Peters on Educational Organizing
  • What kind of work is it to "encourage" two-way academic-community partnerships, and who will do it? I suggest that this work is best understood as organizing, and that Extension educators are uniquely situated to do it. Interestingly, however, the Kellogg Commission appears doubtful that Extension will be able to effectively do this work. They wrote that our "inherited" ideas of Extension "emphasize a one-way process of transferring knowledge and technology from the university (as the source of expertise) to its key constituents. The engagement ideal is profoundly different" (Kellogg Commission, 1998, p. 11).