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A Security Protocol for Sensor Networks. Khadija Stewart, Themistoklis Haniotakis and Spyros Tragoudas Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Southern Illinois University. Outline. Abstract Previous work Proposed method Uncorrelating the bits Encryption scheme

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a security protocol for sensor networks

A Security Protocol for Sensor Networks

Khadija Stewart, Themistoklis Haniotakis and Spyros Tragoudas

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Southern Illinois University

outline
Outline
  • Abstract
  • Previous work
  • Proposed method
    • Uncorrelating the bits
    • Encryption scheme
    • Reverse uncorrelation and decryption scheme
  • Hardware overhead
  • Experimental results
  • Conclusions
abstract
Abstract
  • Sensor networks are extensively used in military and rescue operations

Need for secure communications

  • Memory, computational and energy resource constraints
    • Security protocol must use minimal resources
    • Available security schemes are either inefficient or expensive
previous work
Previous Work
  • Key based schemes
    • Frankel et al 1989
    • Eshenaur et al 2002
    • Chan et al 2003
    • Liu et al 2003
    • Du et al 2005
previous work1
Previous Work
  • Keyless methods target flexibility
    • Rabin 1989
    • Papadimitratos et al 2003
proposed method outline
Proposed Method: Outline
  • Message split into 2n sub-messages
  • Sub-messages uncorrelated using an LFSR
  • Sub-messages encrypted
  • Encrypted sub-messages are routed through transmission disjoint routes
  • At the destination, sub-messages are decrypted and uncorrelation is reversed
proposed method splitting of the message
Proposed Method:Splitting of the message

Number of columns of array B = Number of node disjoint paths

Globecom 05

proposed method uncorrelating the bits
Proposed Method: Uncorrelating the bits
  • LFSRs primarily used in circuit testing to produce pseudo-random patterns
  • A different LFSR chosen for each sub-message i
  • Characteristic polynomial and ti are encoded and appended to the outgoing sub-message

011

001

100

010

101

110

111

Example of an LFSR with k = 3 and T = 7

proposed method encryption scheme
Proposed Method: Encryption Scheme
  • For i=0 to m-1
    • Xi = bi,0XOR bi,1 XOR…XOR bi,2n-1
  • For i=0 to m-1
    • For j=0 to 2n-1
      • Ci,j = XiXOR bi,j
proposed method
Proposed Method
  • Sub-messages are routed through node disjoint routes
  • Routes only need to be node disjoint due to the use of directional antennas
  • A mote can overhear transmission if and only if it is within transmission range and in angular span of sending node

Globecom 05

proposed method de uncorrelation and decryption scheme
Proposed Method: De-uncorrelation and decryption Scheme

Procedure decode

      • For i=0 to m-1
        • Xi = ci,0XOR ci,1 XOR…XOR ci,2n-1
      • For i=0 to m-1
        • For j=0 to 2n-1
          • bi,j = XiXOR ci,j
  • Sub-messages reverse uncorrelated in a similarly designed LFSR

Globecom 05

hardware overhead
Hardware Overhead
  • The hardware requirements are:
  • An m bit LFSR
  • Two levels of XOR gates
    • One level is used for encryption and the other is used with the LFSR
  • Three levels of multiplexers
    • 2x1 multiplexers at the inputs of XOR gates
    • 4nx2n multiplexers to initiate LFSR
experimental results area and power requirements
Experimental Results:Area and power requirements
  • Power consumption of RSA chip is in the order of 500 mW
  • Power and area of ECC module is over 300 mW and 24,000 square microns
  • Security module designed and synthesized in VHDL for a 512 bit ckt
    • Power consumption 5 micro Watts
    • Area less than 25 square microns
experimental results performance measurements using opnet
Experimental Results: Performance measurements using OPNET
  • Experiments conducted on networks of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 motes with 90 degree directional antennas
  • Wireless transmission range set to 25 meters
experimental results one intruder
Experimental Results:One intruder
  • Experiments ran 10 times for each network size. In each run, a random node chosen as intruder
  • Number of paths = maximum even number of node disjoint paths
  • Used destinations at least two hops away
  • No single intruder nodewas able to intercept a complete message
experimental results multiple intruders
Experimental Results:Multiple intruders
  • 70 motes

Percentage of messages intercepted for different numbers of paths

As the number of paths increases, the number of intercepted messages decreases

experimental results performance of scheme in presence of several intruders
Experimental Results:Performance of scheme in presence of several intruders

Percentage of messages intercepted in the presence of

different numbers of collaborating nodes

Low interception rates even for large number of intruders

conclusions
Conclusions
  • An encryption method and uncorrelation scheme for secure message transmission in sensor networks
  • Experimental results show
    • Low resource requirements of proposed method
    • Efficiency of proposed method in protecting secrecy of messages
questions
Questions?
  • Thank you