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Welcome To Technology Department

Introduction to Digital Technology

Workshop

Dr. Ali Setoodehnia

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY

- WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY
- DIGITAL CIRCUITS TECHNOLOGY
- OTHER TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
- THE DESIGN PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY

- DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY
- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT THE HISTORY

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DEFINITION OF TECHNOLOGY

- Technology is the technical means people use to improve their surroundings.It is knowledge of using tools and machines to do tasks efficiently.
- We use technology to control the world in which we live.
- People use technology to improve their ability to do work. Through technology, people communicate better, make more and better products, travel in more comfort and speed. Yes, technology is everywhere and can make life better.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

- Often the terms, technology and science, are confused. Technology is said to be "applied science". This is not true .
- Science tells us that objects will fall to the earth (law of gravity).
- Science explains why only certain plants are found on the Mojave Desert (plant ecology).
- Science tells us that steel exposed to oxygen will rust (chemistry).

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

CONTINUE

- Science tells us that cross-pollinating plants will produce predictable results (biology).
- Science tells us that oil is most likely found near certain rock formation (geology).
- On the other hand, Technology deals with the human-made world.
- It is the study of ways people develop and use technical means - tools and machines.
- It tells us how to control the natural and human-made world.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

CONTINUE

- Technology is the study of the ways people uses these technical means to transport, manufacture, construct, and communicate.
- This is not to say science and technology are unrelated. Science deals with "understanding" while technology deals with "doing".

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT THE HISTORY

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Iron Age Roundhouse

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

TECHNOLOGY THROUGHOUT THE HISTORY

- THE STONE AGE
- THE BRONZE AGE
- THE IRON AGE
- THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
- THE 20 CENTURY

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

THE 20 CENTURY Technology Timeline

- 1903The Wright brothers fly the first airplane. The flight lasted for 12 seconds and 120 feet.1910The first electrically powered washing machine was invented by Alva J. Fisher. 1916Frigidaire invents the first electric refrigerator.1923Dr. Vladimir Zworkin demonstrates an early television prototype.1939John Atanassoff constructed the first semi-electric digital computing device.1946Raytheon invents the microwave oven.1951 : UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) becomes the first computer to handle both numeric and alphabetical data.1954Jonas Salk tested the first effective polio vaccine. Color television broadcasts begin.1969Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to walk on the moon.1971First MICOPROCESSOR INTEL 4004 VCR introduced.1977First personal computer (Apple) introduced.1978The first modern, public cellular phone network is tested.1985Dr. Jack Copeland implants a Jarvik-7 artificial heart into Michael Drummond.1994Consumer Internet usage takes off.1996First digital television broadcast by a commercial television station in the United States.1998John Glenn rides a shuttle back into space, three decades after his first historic flight. The launch is broadcast live in digital HDTV by Harris Corporation.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DIGITAL CIRCUITS TECHNOLOGY

- WHAT IS DIGITAL CIRCUIT (D.C.)?
- WHAT ARE THE CLUES THAT AN ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS CONTAINS D.C.?
- ADVANTAGES OF D.C. OVER ANALOG CIRCUIT (A.N.)?
- WHERE ARE D.C. USED?
- HOW DO YOU DESIGN D.C.?
- HOW DO YOU CONSTRUCT D.C.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

WHAT IS DIGITAL CIRCUIT

- Engineers generally classify electronic circuits as being either analog or digital.
- Analog circuit works with sinusoidal signals
- Digital circuit works with discrete signals
- Most newly electronic devices contains at least some digital circuitry

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

SIGNALS

Signals can be analog or digital. Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range; digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

ANALOG SIGNALS

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DIGITAL SIGNALS

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DIGITAL versus ANALOG

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

WHAT ARE THE CLUES THAT AN ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS CONTAINS D.C.?

- Does it have an alphanumeric display?
- Does it have a memory or can it store information?
- Is it programmable?

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Advantages of D.C. over A.C

- Easier to design using integrated circuit
- Information storage
- Programmable
- More accurate and precision
- Less effect by electrical noises

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

WHERE ARE D.C. USED?

- Calculator
- Computer
- Robot
- Measurement devices
- Telecommunications
- Transportations
- Etc.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

HOW DO YOU DESIGN D.C.?

- Understand function of the circuit
- Define input/output of the circuit
- Variable assignment for input/output
- Convert variables to binary codes
- Map the circuit functions between input/output binary codes
- Minimize mapping functions
- Construct functions using logic gates
- Test the circuit

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Sample D.C for one bit binary Addition

- What is Binary number system?
- Binary number system uses only the two symbols 0 and 1
- Has base 2
- Bit is 0 or 1
- Functions of one bit Binary Addition

x

S

adder

y

C out

C in

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Continue

- Inputs of Adder-circuit:
- First bit number: 0 or 1
- Second bit number: 0 or 1
- Carry bit number: 0 or 1
- Output of Adder-circuit:
- Sum of one bit numbers: 0 or 1
- Carry generator of one bit numbers: 0 or 1

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Input/output Variable Assignment

- Input Variables
- First input number: X
- Second input number: Y
- Carry input number: Ci
- Output Variables
- Sum of one bit adder: S
- Carry out: Co

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Circuit Functions

- Sum Function:

S(X,Y,Ci) = Ci’. Y ’. X + Ci’. Y . X’ + Ci. Y’. X’ + Ci . Y . X

- Carry Function

Co(X,Y,Ci) = Ci’ . Y . X + Ci. Y ’. X + Ci. Y . X’ + Ci . Y . X

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Minimize Functions

- S(X,Y,Ci) is minimized
- Co(X,Y,Ci) = Y . X + Ci. X + Ci. Y

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Construct Adder Circuit Using Logic Gates

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Radio ShackGeneral-Purpose IC PC BoardCat. No. 276-150A

(Top View – white pads)

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

How to Design and Construct PC Board

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

- MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
- CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
- COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
- TRANSPORATION SYSTEMS

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

- There are four major types of manufacturing systems which include the following:
- 1. Custom manufacturing
- 2. Intermittent and batch manufacturing
- 3. Continuous manufacturing (like care)
- 4. Flexible manufacturing(USE COMPUTER)
- Each of these systems is used today to make products. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

- Construction is a series of carefully planned events. Construction technology uses materials, work, processes, and equipment to build a structure on a site. Management organizes these resources and uses them efficiently.
- Building anything requires completing a series of steps. These have to be done in the right order. The steps are part of one technical process. It is called the construction process.
- Construction projects almost always follow the same steps. The major steps are: 1. Planning 2. Constructing 3. Servicing

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

- Everyone communicates with other people. Humans have developed complex technological systems to improve this type of communication. Machines and devices have been produced to help us communicate better and easier. People-to-people communication includes five basic systems. These are:
- 1. Telecommunication systems
- 2. Audio and video recording systems
- 3. Printing systems
- 4. Photographic systems 5. Drafting systems

Other communications are:

- Machine- to –people
- People-to-machine
- Machine-to-machine

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

TRANSPORATION SYSTEMS

- Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. Transportation technology is built around the vehicle. This vehicle must be designed to suit the purpose. Every vehicle must have:

1. A Structure

2. A means of Propulsion

3. A means of Transmission

4. A Guidance System

5. Control Systems

6. Measurement Devices

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

THE DESIGN PROCESS

- THE PROBLEM
- THE DESIGN BRIEF
- INVESTIGATION
- DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
- CHOOSING A SOLUTION
- MODELS AND PROTOTYPES
- TESTING AND EVALUATING
- MANUFACTURING

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

THE PROBLEM

- The process of designing begins when there is a need.
- Wherever there are people there are problems needing solutions. In some cases the designer may have to invent a product. An example might be a game for blind persons.
- At other times the designer may change an existing design. (If the handle of a pot becomes too hot to touch, it must be redesigned.)
- Designers also improve existing products. They make the product work even better. Could the chair in the waiting room of a bus or train station be altered so that waiting seems shorter?

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

THE DESIGN BRIEF

- A design brief should describe simply and clearly what is to be designed. The design brief cannot be vague. Some examples of problems and design briefs are listed below:
- PROBLEM: Blind people cannot play many of the indoor games available to sighted people.
- DESIGN BRIEF: Design a game of dominoes that can be played by blind people.
- PROBLEM: The handle of a pot becomes too hot to hold when the pot is heated.
- DESIGN BRIEF: Design a handle that remains cool when the pot is heated.
- PROBLEM: Waiting time in a bus or train station seems too long. There is nothing to do.
- DESIGN BRIEF: Modify the seats so that a small television can be attached.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

INVESTIGATION

- Writing a clearly stated design brief is just one step. Now you must write down all the information you think you may need. Some think to consider are the following:
- 1. FUNCTION: A functional object must solve the problem described in the design brief. The basic question to ask is: "What, exactly, is the use of the article?"
- 2. APPEARANCE: How will the object look? The shape, color, and texture should make the object attractive.
- 3. MATERIALS: What materials are available to you? You should think about the cost of these materials. Are they affordable? Do they have the right physical properties, such as strength, rigidity, color, and durability?
- 4. CONSTRUCTION: Will it be hard to make? Consider what methods you will need to cut, shape, form, join, and finish the material.
- 5. SAFETY: The object you design must be safe to use. It should not cause accidents.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

- You should produce a number of solutions. It is very important that you write or draw every idea on paper as it occurs to you. This will help you remember and describe them more clearly. It is also easier to discuss them with other people if you have a drawing.
- These first sketches do not have to be very detailed or accurate. They should be made quickly. The important thing is to record all your ideas. Do not be critical. Try to think of lots of ideas, even some wild ones. The more ideas you have, the more likely you are to end up with a good solution.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

CHOOSING A SOLUTION

- You may find that you like several of the solutions. Eventually, you must choose one. Usually, careful comparison with the original design brief will help you to select the best.
- You must also consider:

·Your own skills.

·The materials available.

·Time needed to build each solution.

·Cost of each solution.

- Deciding among the several possible solutions is not always easy. Then it helps to summarize the design requirements and solutions and put the summary in a chart. Which would you choose? In cases like this, let it be the one you like best.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

DETAILED DRAWING

- In the next step, make a detailed drawing of the chosen solution. This drawing must include all of the information needed to make your product. It should include the following:

·The overall dimensions

·Detailed dimensions

·The material to be used

·How it will be made

· What finish will be required

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

MODELS AND ROTOTYPES

- A model is a full-size or small-scale simulation of an object. Architects, engineers, and most designers use models.
- Models are one more step in communicating an idea. It is far easier to understand an idea when seen in three-dimensional form. A scale model is used when designing objects that are very large.
- A prototype is the first working version of the designer's solution. It is generally full-size and often handmade. For a simple object such as a pencil holder, the designer probably would not make a model. He or she may go directly to a prototype.

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

TESTING AND VALUATING

- Testing and evaluating answers three basic questions:

·Does it work?

·Does it meet the design brief?

· Will modifications improve the solution?

- The question "does it work?" is basic to good design. It has to be answered. An engineer designing a bridge, by the designer of a subway car, or by an architect planning a new school would ask this same question. If you were to make a mistake in the final design of the pencil holder what would happen? The result might simply be unattractive. At worst, the holder would not work well. Not so if a designer makes mistakes in a car's seat belt design. Someone's life may be in danger!

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

Dr. Setoodehnia asetoode@kean.edu

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