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Vortex Generators. AOE 4124 Dr. Mason March 26, 2004 Rich Stark Brian Squires Jessica Walker. Definition of Vortex Generators. According to Clancy in “Aerodynamics” (Ref 1.) :

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vortex generators

Vortex Generators

AOE 4124 Dr. Mason

March 26, 2004

Rich Stark

Brian Squires

Jessica Walker

definition of vortex generators
Definition of Vortex Generators
  • According to Clancy in “Aerodynamics” (Ref 1.) :
    • Vortex generators are small, cambered, thin airfoils placed to introduce swirling motions that energize the boundary layer causing a delay in stall.
common applications
Common Applications
  • External – Fuselage/Wing
    • Upstream of flight control surfaces where BL attachment is critical
  • Internal – Propulsion
    • Prevents flow separation, excessive BL growth, and to reduce total pressure distortion of the flow ingested by the engine

Ref. 2: Wendt, B.J. and B.A. Reichert, “The Modelling of Symmetric Airfoil Vortex Generators.” AIAA Paper 96-0807.

history of vortex generators
History of Vortex Generators
  • First used in England (inventor unknown)
  • Used first on Transport Jets and Bizjets
  • Used as a “band-aid” for localized mach buffeting problems
  • First GA applications on Cessna 206 and Baron D-55
how they work
How They Work
  • Create strong tip vortices which feed high energy air from the external stream to mix with/replace the slower moving air in the boundary layer
  • Reduces the effects of adverse pressure gradients and prevents separation

Ref. 3 http://home1.gte.net.pjbemail/VortexGen.html

flow effects of vgs
Flow Effects of VGs

Ref. 4 www.avweb.com/news/reviews/182564-1.html

shed vortex structure
Shed Vortex Structure

Ref. 5 Klausmeyer, Steven; Papadakis, Michael; and Lin, John, “A Flow Physics Study of Vortex Generators on a Multi-element Airfoil.” AIAA Paper 96-0548

vg effect on c l at various angles of attack
VG Effect on CL at Various Angles of Attack

Ref. 6 Broadley, Ian and Garry, Kevin, “Effectiveness of Vortex Generator Position and Orientation on Highly Swept Wings.” AIAA-97-2319

arrangement of vgs
Arrangement of VGs
  • Usually located at the transition from laminar to turbulent flow
  • Typically 80% of boundary layer thickness

Ref. 4 www.avweb.com/news/reviews/182564-1.html

various ga aircraft models which offer vg kits
Various GA Aircraft Models Which Offer VG Kits
  • BEECHDuke 60, A60, B60, Bonanza 33, 35, 36, 36TCCESSNA120/140Skywagon 180, 185310, 310A-R, T310P-R320D-F335, 340, 340A401, 401A, 401B402, 402A, 402B, 402C414, 414A421, 421A, 421B, 421C441 (Conquest II)
  • deHAVILLANDBeaver Mk I

Ref. 7 www.airliners.net/info

various ga aircraft models which offer vg kits cont
Various GA Aircraft Models Which Offer VG Kits (cont.)
  • PIPERNavajo PA31-310, 325C/RColemill Panther I & IIChieftan PA31-350, T1020Seneca II/III/IV PA34Super Cruiser PA12, PA14Super Cub PA18
  • AGPLANESAyres Thrush, Air Tractor,Cessna 188 AgWagon,Piper PA36 Brave, Dromader, Weatherly

Ref. 7 www.airliners.net/info

commercial transport aircraft with vgs
Commercial Transport Aircraft with VGs

Ref. 7 www.airliners.net/info

pros and cons
Pros and Cons
  • Pros:
    • Increases slope of lift curve
    • Increase in Gross Take-off Weight
    • Stall speed reduction (7-21%)
    • Improved handling qualities
    • Decrease tire and brake wear
  • Cons:
    • Expensive
    • Makes debugging of the leading edge difficult
    • Possible source of vibration
    • Dual instruction and practice required for full effectiveness
more pros
More Pros
  • Shorter take-offs and landings
  • Steeper climb-outs and approaches
  • Reduction of min control speed
  • No extra drag
  • No weight and balance change
  • No extra maintainence
vgs are everywhere
VGs are Everywhere!

Ref. 8 www.greenwoodcorvettes.net

go faster strip
Go Faster Strip

Ref. 3 http://home1.gte.net.pjbemail/VortexGen.html

head mounted vortex generators
Head Mounted Vortex Generators

Ref. 3 http://home1.gte.net.pjbemail/VortexGen.html

references
References
  • Clancy, L.J. “Aerodynamics.” Halsted Press, 1975.
  • Wendt, B.J. and B.A. Reichert, “The Modelling of Symmetric Airfoil Vortex Generators.” AIAA Paper 96-0807.
  • http://home1.gte.net.pjbemail/VortexGen.html
  • www.avweb.com/news/reviews/182564-1.html
  • Klausmeyer, Steven; Papadakis, Michael; and Lin, John, “A Flow Physics Study of Vortex Generators on a Multi-element Airfoil.” AIAA Paper 96-0548
  • Broadley, Ian and Garry, Kevin, “Effectiveness of Vortex Generator Position and Orientation on Highly Swept Wings.” AIAA-97-2319
  • www.airliners.net/info
  • www.greenwoodcorvettes.net
  • Animated vortex on title page taken from ref. 3