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USE OF ALTERNATE SUGAR PROCESSING INTERMEDIATES AND SUPPLEMENTARY CROPS FOR AUGMENTING ETHANOL SUPPLY R. V. Godage 1 , D. A. Patil 2 and S. V. Patil 3. Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Manjari (Bk.), Pune 412 307, India. Author for correspondence: sanjay01356@hotmail.com.

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slide1

USE OF ALTERNATE SUGAR PROCESSING INTERMEDIATES AND SUPPLEMENTARY CROPS FOR AUGMENTING ETHANOL SUPPLY

R. V. Godage1, D. A. Patil2 and S. V. Patil3

Vasantdada Sugar Institute,

Manjari (Bk.), Pune 412 307, India.

Author for correspondence:sanjay01356@hotmail.com

why alternate supplementary raw materials
International crude price has crossed $100 per barrel.

The world ethanol production has reached to 62.03 Billion liters in 2007 and expected to increase to about 100 Billion liters by 2012.

Indian total ethanol demand is projected to reach 5.920 Billion liters in 2010 at 10% and 5% blending rate of fuel ethanol in gasoline & diesel, respectively.

About 95 % distilleries in the country are based on sugar cane molasses.

WHY ALTERNATE/SUPPLEMENTARY RAW MATERIALS ?
slide3
Considering maximum projected sugar cane crushing in the country of 260.0 million MT (Molasses- 11.70 million MT) in 2010, it would be possible to produce maximum 2.574 Billion liters of ethanol.

This indicates that, cane molasses alone will not be sufficient to meet India’s increasing requirement of ethanol. To overcome this problem, it is possible to produce ethanol from variety of renewable agricultural sources such as various sugar processing intermediates, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, cereal grains etc.

slide4

Ethanol: World Scenario

World Total Alcohol Production Year 2003-2007

(In Million Liters)

slide7

ALTERNATE SUGAR PROCESSING INTERMEDIATESCase StudyCrushing capacity = 4000 TCD Distillery capacity = 60 KLPD Sugar price = Rs. 11.50/kg Ethanol price = Rs. 21.50/Liter Bagasse price = Rs. 250.0/MT Pol % Cane = 13.23 All data on per day basis

slide8

Conventional route

(Per day basis)

slide9

Particulars

Two m/c boiling

Sugar recovery

9.82 %

Sugar production

3928.0 qtls.

BH % cane

5.56 %

BH production

222.04 MT/day

Ethanol

74.943 KLPD

Ethanol revenue

Rs. 16.113 Lac

Sugar revenue

Rs. 45.172 Lac

Total revenue

Rs. 61.285 Lac

Total revenue per MT of cane

Rs. 1532.12/MT

Two massecuite/B-Heavy

molasses route

(Per day basis)

slide10

Particulars

PJ for Sugar + SJ for Ethanol

Sugar recovery

8.76 %

Sugar production

3504.0 qtls.

FM % cane

2.46 %

FM production

98.538 MT/day

Ethanol from FM

22.977 KLPD

SJ % cane

40.94

SJ Production

1637.60 MT/day

Ethanol from SJ

78.404 KLPD

Total Ethanol

101.381 KLPD

Ethanol revenue

Rs. 21.797 Lac

Sugar revenue

Rs. 40.296 Lac

Total revenue

Rs. 62.093 Lac

Total revenue per MT of cane

Rs. 1552.32/MT

Total secondary juice route

(Per day basis)

slide11

Particulars

PJ for Sugar + Partial SJ for ethanol

(as per distillery capacity)

Sugar recovery

9.41 %

Sugar production

3764.0 qtls.

FM % cane

2.72 %

FM production

108.95 MT/day

Ethanol from FM

26.595 KLPD

SJ % cane

31.38

SJ Production

1255 MT/day

Ethanol from SJ

60.085 KLPD

Total Ethanol

86.680 KLPD

Ethanol revenue

Rs. 18.636 Lac

Sugar revenue

Rs. 43.286 Lac

Total revenue

Rs. 61.922 Lac

Total revenue per MT of cane

Rs. 1548.05/MT

Partial secondary juice route(Per day basis)

slide12

Particulars

Total juice for ethanol

Sugar recovery

-

Sugar production

-

FM % cane

-

FM production

-

Ethanol from FM

-

MJ % cane

98.28

MJ Production

3931.20 MT/day

Ethanol from MJ

297.496 KLPD

Total Ethanol

297.496 KLPD

Ethanol revenue

Rs. 63.962 Lac

Sugar revenue

-

Total revenue

Rs. 63.962 Lac

Total revenue per MT of cane

Rs. 1599.05/MT

Total mixed juice route(Per day basis)

slide13

Particulars

Partial MJ for ethanol

(as per distillery capacity)

Sugar recovery

9.24 %

Sugar production

3696.0 qtls.

FM % cane

2.86 %

FM production

114.28 MT/day

Ethanol from FM

27.433 KLPD

MJ % cane

20.75

MJ Production

830.0 MT/day

Ethanol from MJ

60.540 KLPD

Total Ethanol

87.973 KLPD

Ethanol revenue

Rs. 18.914 Lac

Sugar revenue

Rs. 42.504 Lac

Total revenue

Rs. 61.418 Lac

Total revenue per MT of cane

Rs. 1535.45/MT

Partial mixed juice route(Per day basis)

slide14

Particulars

Sugar Production

(Qtls/day)

Ethanol Production

(KLPD)

Conventional

4600

36.996

B-Heavy

3928

74.943

Secondary Juice

3504

101.381

Partial Secondary Juice

3764

86.680

Whole Cane Juice

-

297.496

Partial Whole Cane Juice

3696

87.973

Comparative Sugar and

Ethanol Production

slide15

Particulars

(Litres/MT)

FM or BH

SJ or MJ

Per MT of Sugar cane

Conventional

254.1

-

9.25

B-Heavy

336.97

-

18.74

Secondary Juice

233.17

47.88

25.34

Partial Secondary Juice

233.17

47.88

21.64

Whole Cane Juice

-

75.67

74.37

Partial Whole Cane Juice

240.05

75.67

21.99

Comparative Ethanol Yields

slide16

Particulars

Sugar Revenue

Ethanol Revenue

Total Revenue

Conventional

52.900

7.954

60.854

B-Heavy

45.172

16.113

61.285

Secondary Juice

40.296

21.797

62.093

Partial Secondary Juice

43.286

18.636

61.922

Whole Cane Juice

---

63.962

63.962

Partial Whole Cane Juice

42.504

18.914

61.418

Comparative Revenue Generation(Rs. Lac)

slide17

Particulars

Sugar Conversion cost

Ethanol conversion cost

Total cost

Harvesting &

Transport Cost

Conventional

225.0

550.0

52.49

827.49

B-Heavy

225.0

542.0

65.58

832.58

Secondary Juice

225.0

542.7

88.71

856.41

Partial Secondary Juice

225.0

547.0

75.85

847.85

Whole Cane Juice

225.0

267.0

260.31

752.31

Partial Whole Cane Juice

225.0

548.0

76.98

849.98

Expenditure, (Rs./MT)

slide18

Total expenditure

Expected cane price

Total revenue

Particulars

Conventional

1521.35

827.49

694.06

B-Heavy

1532.12

832.58

699.54

Secondary Juice

1552.32

856.41

695.91

Partial Secondary Juice

1548.05

847.85

700.02

Whole Cane Juice

1599.05

752.31

846.74

Partial Whole Cane Juice

1535.45

849.98

685.47

Expected cane price, (Rs./MT)

maximum production 180 days

Particulars

Sugar Production

(Qtls)

Ethanol Production

(KL)

Conventional

8,28,000

6,659.28

B-Heavy

7,07,040

13,489.74

Secondary Juice

6,30,720

18,248.58

Partial Secondary Juice

6,77,520

15,602.40

Whole Cane Juice

-

53,549.28

Partial Whole Cane Juice

6,65,280

15,835.14

Maximum Production (180 days)

supplementary crops

SUPPLEMENTARY CROPS

Tropical Sugar Beet

New varieties suitable for tropical regions.

Sugar content 12-18 %.

5 to 6 months crop.

Less water requirement.

High salt tolerance.

Constitutes 22.02 % of world sugar production.

Used for production of sugar, ethanol and cattle feed.

Additional supply of raw material to sugar mills after

sugarcane crushing season.

slide24

Sugar beet roots

Process flow diagram of Ethanol manufacturing from sugar beet juice –

Beet weighment

Water

Beet washer

Wash water to field

Beet slicer

Exhaust steam

Beet Diffuser

Diffused Juice

Diffused pulp

Screening

Pulp press

Suspended matter

Juice evaporation & syrup cooling

Pulp for cattle feed

Low brix juice to diffuser

Syrup weighment

Water &Yeast

Fermentation

CO2

Bio-methanation or

Bio-composting

Steam

Primary distillation (R.S.)

Sp. wash

Ethanol

Dehydration

slide26

Case Study

500 TBD to connect with existing 45 KLPD Distillery Unit

slide31

Sweet Sorghum(Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench)

  • Short duration crop (120 – 140 days).
  • Cheaper to grow.
  • Less water requirement than any other crop.
  • Has a good tolerance to wide range of climatic & soil
  • conditions.
  • This crop can be taken twice in a year.
  • The quality of Rectified Spirit obtained is superior.
  • The effluent volume can be reduced to 3 lit/lit.
  • Sweet Sorghum is grown in – Africa, South & Central
  • America, China, India, Pakistan and United States.
slide32

SOWING AND HARVESTING

  • 7 Varieties in Kharip Season & 7 Varieties in Rabi season.
  • RSSV-9 From MPKV, Rahuri.
  • SSV-84, ICSV-93046, ICSV-700, NTJ-2, SPV-472 & S-35 From
  • ICRISAT, Hyderabad.
  • Sown at V.S.I. Farm by dibbling method.
  • 6 Irrigations at an intervals of 20 days.
  • NPK Fertilizer doses of 120, 60 & 60 kg/ha were given.
  • The crop was harvested at an intervals of 10 days i.e. 100 days, 110
  • days, 120 days, & 130 days from sowing.
slide40

Conclusion

  • Conventional molasses route is most economical. However, it can not fulfill the increasing ethanol demand of the country. It would also result in increasing the sugar stocks.
  • Route that can be used will be determined by the prevailing prices of sugar and ethanol at that time.
  • Excess sugar can be diverted to ethanol production. However, at the same time there is a need to create additional demand for ethanol by initiating minimum 10 % blending with petrol.
  • Though whole cane juice route is showing maximum returns under prevailing prices of sugar and fuel ethanol, it can not be a practicable approach due to the constraints of average distillery capacities in our country.
  • B-Heavy molasses route can be the next choice after conventional route as switch over is fast with better sugar quality and no capital investment.
slide41

Though partial secondary juice route is also showing higher returns, it would require additional investment.

  • Higher the price of ethanol and comparatively lower the price of sugar, other routes will become viable.
  • B-Heavy molasses can be stored where as secondary juice or mixed juice can not be stored.
  • Indian sugar mills need to develop flexible approach to shift from sugar to ethanol or vice-versa as per the market demand.
  • Ethanol & Cogeneration with their rapidly increasing demand present an opportunity to reduce sugar stocks, provide diversification & supply a steady income stream to protect the bottom line.
  • Sugar beet and sweet sorghum are potential crops for ethanol production. More R & D is needed to establish suitable varieties under Indian conditions.