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The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League 1943-1954 Players for the 1944 South Bend Blue Sox From 1875-1934, “Bloomer Girls” played men’s minor league teams around the country. After this stopped, many women played on semi-professional softball teams, but no

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the all american girls professional baseball league
The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League

1943-1954

Players for the 1944 South Bend Blue Sox

slide2

From 1875-1934, “Bloomer Girls” played men’s minor league

teams around the country. After this stopped, many

women played on semi-professional softball teams, but no

women played baseball.

slide3

After Pearl Harbor,

President Roosevelt wrote

the “Green Light Letter”

to Kenesaw Landis, the

Commissioner of Baseball,

saying that Major

League Baseball should

continue for the good

of the country.

People still worried that

the league would have to

suspend play.

slide4

When America entered World

War II, women across the

country pitched in to help with

the war effort. Women

“pitching in?” Hhhmmm...

slide5

Philip K. Wrigley, owner of the Chicago

Cubs, had an idea. Female softball players

would form a professional league. He

enlisted the help of several major league

owners including Branch Rickey, to be

trustees. He also hired former MLB

players such as Jimmy Foxx to manage.

Philip K. Wrigley

Jimmy Foxx

Branch Rickey

slide6

Wrigley sent scouts around to softball teams. In May of 1943, 280 women were invited to Wrigley Field to compete for 64 spots on four teams. The women came from 26 states and five Canadian provinces.

In the spring of 1943, the

All-American Girls Softball

League was formed.

The first four players signed were

Clara Schilace, Ann Harnett, Edie Perlick

and Shirley Jamerson (sitting).

slide7

Play ball!!!!

The original four teams of the All-American Girls

Professional Baseball League (Wrigley changed the

name halfway through the first season) were...

slide12

The other teams in the League:

The Muskegon Lassies (1946-1950)

moved to Kalamazoo (1950-1954).

The Milwaukee Chicks (1944)

moved to Grand Rapids (1945-1954)

The Chicago Colleens

and the Springfield Sallies

lasted only a year: 1948.

The Fort Wayne Daisies

1945-1954

The Battle Creek Belles

1951-1952

The Peoria Red Wings: 1946-1951

slide13

Because many girls were very young,

each team had a female chaperone.

More than two-thirds of the players

were between the ages of 17 and 22.

Uniforms were very feminine and

unpractical. Players wore belted

dresses with satin briefs underneath,

along with high socks.

slide14

Wrigley was adamant

that the players act like

ladies at all times. For

the first several years

of the league, the players

attended charm school

at night. At left is an

AAGPBL guide on how to

dress, act and apply

make-up properly.

slide15

The League was a big hit. Due to gas

rationing, folks couldn’t travel, and

the games gave them hometown

entertainment.

Often the teams played at military

bases and veterans’ hospitals.

During World War

Two, the teams

would form a

“V” for “Victory”

during the anthem.

Fun fact: Thanks to

portable lights, the first

night game ever played at

Wrigley Field was on July

1, 1943 at an AAGPBL

All-Star game!!

slide16

The fact that the players were really good was the

biggest draw. These ladies could play! The rules changed

as the league grew, and by 1954, they were almost exactly

like those of Major League Baseball.

Faye Dancer sliding into third base

slide17

The players worked hard: daily games, two on Sundays, traveling often. During rationing, they went by train, switching to buses after the War. Most players were paid well for the times; starting weekly salaries ranged from $40 - $85, with some making $125.

Player treated for a

strawberry suffered

while sliding into a base.

Players had the same worries as other

American women; one night, Mickey Maguire played minutes after learning her husband had been killed in action.

slide18

Jean Faut

After debuting at 15, Dottie Schroeder was

the only player to play all 12 years in the League.

Joanne Weaver

slide19

On April 7, 1945,

Annabelle “Lefty” Lee,

throwing a knuckleball,

became the first player

to throw a no-hitter in the League.

slide20

Sophie Kurys, “The Flint Flash,” was a star player for the Racine Belles. In 1946, she played so well that she was featured on the back cover of the 1947 Major League Baseball Yearbook; Stan Musial was on the front cover.

Her most amazing accomplishment? In 1946 alone, she stole 201 bases out of 203 tries. That

record is unequaled to this day, even allowing for distance discrepancy. AND she did it in a skirt!

slide21

Dottie Kamenshek was an incredible

first baseman, the best all-around player

in the League, and a seven-time All-Star.

Connie Wisniewski,

the League’s first

Player of the Year.

slide22

Connie Mack in the Kenosha Comets’ dugout.

After seeing Dottie Schroeder in action at

shortstop, he said, “If that girl were a man,

she’d be worth $50,000 to me.”

slide23

1946 playoff trophy

won by The Racine

Belles

Cartoon poster featuring

Faye Dancer

slide24

After years of declining attendance, The All-American

Girls Professional Baseball League folded in 1954.

Among the contributions to its demise were the

growth of television, other ways of spending free time,

and regressive views of women’s roles in society.

slide25

In 1988, the women of the All-American

Girls Professional Baseball League were

finally recognized at the opening of a

permanent exhibition at Cooperstown.

Museums around the country honor

the players as well.

slide26

Letter written by former

President Ford to Vivian

Kellogg, who played for

the Fort Wayne Daisies.

slide27

Victory Song

co-written by LaVonne Paire-Davis and Nalda Phillips

Batter up! Hear that call!

The time has come for one and all

To play ball. For we’re the members of

the All-American League,

We come from cities near and far.

We've got Canadians, Irishmen and Swedes,

We're all for one, we’re one for all,

We're All-American.

Each girl stands, her head so proudly high,

Her motto Do or Die.

She’s not the one to use or need an alibi.

Our chaperones are not too soft,

They’re not too tough,

Our managers are on the ball.

We’ve got a president who really knows his stuff,

We’re all for one, we’re one for all,

We’re All-Americans!

references

Slide One:

-All-American Girls Professional Baseball League logo. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from

http://members.tripod.com/bb_catchers/catchers/aagpbl.htm

-1944 Candid Blue Sox. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from aagpbl.org/photos/phm44sb.html.

Slide Two:

-Western Bloomer Girls. Retrieved October 14, 2004 from http://www.vbba.org/images/pics/bloomer.jpg

Slide Three:

-Green Light Letter written by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to baseball commissioner Kenesaw M. Landis. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from

http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/exhibits/online_exhibits/baseball_enlists/images/a01.jpg

Slide Four:

-Rosie the Riveter. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.tamucc.edu/wiki/KathrynGrubaugh/PortfolioOne.

-Who Said Girls Can’t Play Baseball? Located at Grand Rapids History and Special Collections Center. Retrieved

October 12, 2004 from http://www.grpl.org/coll/grhsty_spcoll/exhibits/baseball/

Slide Five:

-Philip K. Wrigley at the ballpark, CHS-DN-99483. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from

www.chicagohs.org/AOTM/mar99/mar99fact2g.html.

-Branch Rickey. /http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/hofer_bios/images/

rickey_branch_5.jpg

-Jimmy Foxx. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://members.aol.com/jsoco3/jfoxx.jpgmar99/mar99fact2g.html

References
references continued

Slide six:

-See the girls play ball today poster. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org.

-Women got a baseball league of their own. Photo courtesy of Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved October

12, 2004 from www.kcstar.com/sports/history/junerep.html.

-All-American Girls Softball League Official Program. www.aagpbl.org

Slide seven:

- Rockford v. Kenosha poster. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from ali.apple.com/.../ files/gifs/phposter5.gif

-Box lid from a ‘47 MacGregor Goldsmith baseball. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from

http://www.aagpbl.org/photos/phmp47bb.html

Slide eight:

-1943 Kenosha Comets. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/photos/phtp43kc.html.

-1946 Kenosha Comets Yearbook. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org.

-Kenosha Comets logo. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.logoserver.com/AAGPBL.html.

Slide nine:

-1943 Racine Belles. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/photos/phtp43rb.html. Photo

contributed by Kay Bowser from the Mackie Peters collection.

-1946 Racine Belles Yearbook. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org.

-1946 Racine Belles logo. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.logoserver.com/AAGPBL.html.

Slide ten: -1944 Rockford Peaches. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/photos/phtp44rp.html

-Rockford Peaches yearbook. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org.

-Rockford Peaches logo. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.logoserver.com/AAGPBL.html.

Slide eleven:l-1943 So. Bend Blue Sox. Retrieved October 12, 2004, www.aagpbl.org/photos.phtp.43bs.html.

-South Bend Blue Sox yearbook. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org.

South Bend Blue Sox logo. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.logoserver.com/AAGPBL.html.

References, continued
references continued30
References, continued

Slide twelve:

-The other AAGPBL teams logos. All Retrieved October 13, 2004 from logoserver.com/AAGPBL.html.

-Fort Wayne Daisies and Peoria Redwings yearbooks. Both retrieved October 13, 2004 from

www.aagpbl.org.

Slide thirteen:

-Fort Wayne players. Retrieved October 12, 2004, www.baseball-almanac.com/hero/doris-sams_JOES.jpg

Kalamazoo Lassies uniform, worn by Gloria Cordes.Retrieved October 13, 2004 from fmnh.org/trivia5.html.

Slide fourteen:

-A Guide for All American Girls. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from

http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/primary_sources/women/document_01_page_01.htm

Slide fifteen:

-V is for Victory 1945. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://eteamz.active.com/hallfame/albums/index.cfm?id=134685&picture=920922.

-1944 advertisement. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.chicagohs.org/AOTM/mar99/mar99fact1.html

Slide sixteen:

-Cover of an official 1944 schedule. Contributed by Jim Sargent. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://www.aagpbl.org/graphics/phmp44os.jpg.

-Faye Dancer sliding into third. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://eteamz.active.com/hallfame/albums/index.cfm?id=133054&picture=906150.

references continued31
References, continued

Slide seventeen:

-Ouch! That iodine has got to hurt! From “The Belles of the Ballgame a hit with their fan” by Jack Fincer, Smithsonian Magazine, July 1989, p. 84. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/phipdgc.html.

-Dorothy “Mickey” Maguire at bat for the Muskegon Lassies. Courtesy of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Library, Cooperstown, New York. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.chicagohs.org/AOTM/mar99/mar99fact1.html.

Slide eighteen:

-Dottie Schroeder: Portrait on the cover of Parade magazine in August 1948. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/ photos/phipdds.html.

-Jean Faut poster. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://www.aagpbl.org/graphics/arti_jf1.jpg.

-Joanne Weaver: Duchess of the Diamond. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://jordan.fortwayne.com/ns/sports/top50/art/weaver.jpg

Slide nineteen:

-Annabelle Lee, from the June 4, 1945 edition of LIFE magazine. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.oddball-mall.com/knuckleball.

Slide twenty:

-Sophie Kurys. Photo courtesy of the Northern Indiana Historical Society. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://www.exploratorium.edu/baseball/kurys_2.html

Slide twenty-one:

-Dottie Kamenshek Rockford Peaches card. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&category=53&item=5129531467&rd=1#ebayphotohosting

references continued32
References, continued

Slide twenty-one, continued:

-Connie Wisniewski. Connie Wisniewski photo collection is housed at the National Baseball Hall of Fame Library. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://www.aagpbl.org/graphics/arti_cw2.jpg

Slide twenty-two:

-Philadelphia Athletics legendary manager Connie Mack joins the Kenosha Comets in the dugout during a home game. Photo courtesy of National Baseball Library, Cooperstown, New York. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://ghills.metamora.k12.il.us/webquest/dubois/girlsbaseball.htm

Slide twenty-three:

-1946 playoff trophy. From the official 1947 AAGPBL yearbook. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from

http://www.aagpbl.org/graphics/arti_sp1.jpg

-Faye Dancer cartoon poster. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://eteamz.active.com/hallfame/albums/index.cfm?id=133054&picture=906152

Slide twenty-four:

-The good wife’s guide. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.alcade.net/me/junk.

-Housewife in kitchen. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from quazynet.no-ip.org?gerry/goddess.html.

Slide twenty-five:

-National Baseball Hall of Fame logo. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from baseballhalloffame.org.

-National Baseball Hall of Fame, view of exterior. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from baseballhalloffame.org.

--Ball signed by Springfield Sallies and Chicago Colleens. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://users.rowan.edu/~shontz/refpathfinder2003/baseball/baseball/html

-Baseball mitt used by Betty Weaver Foss. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from www.baseballhalloffame.org.

-1954 Lassie’s Catcher’s Mask.Retrieved Oct.13, 2004 from www.aagpbl.org/ photos/phmp54cm.html

references conclusion
References, conclusion

Slide Twenty-six:

-Letter written by Gerald Ford to Vivian Kellogg. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://www.thediamondangle.com/archive/dec02/kellogg.html-Vivian Kellogg Baseball Card. Retrieved October 14, 2004 from http://www.aagpbl.org/graphics/arti_vk1.jpg

Slide Twenty-seven:

-Grand Rapids memorabilia. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from

http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/women/chicks.html

-Rockford Peaches pennant. From the collection of Suzanne Atkins, a former Rockford Peach. Retrieved October 13, 2004 from http://talent.ed.uiuc.edu/baseballquest/peaches/peaches.htm

Slide Thirty-three:

Dottie Stolze: The Big Swing. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from http://www.markreubengallery.com/bs_baseball/bs_0341.html

  • Information about the AAGPBL obtained from
  • Macy, S. (1993). A whole new ballgame. Henry Holt and
  • Company: New York.
  • www.aagpbl.org