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Goddard Space Flight Center. Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling Group. Implementation of the Updated Goddard Longwave and Shortwave Radiation Packages in WRF. Toshi Matsui, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Roger Shi representing Goddard Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling (GMDM) Group. WRF Dynamic Core.

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Goddard Space Flight Center

Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling Group

Implementation of the Updated Goddard Longwave and Shortwave Radiation Packages in WRF

Toshi Matsui, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Roger Shi

representing

Goddard Mesoscale Dynamics and Modeling (GMDM) Group


Role of goddard radiation in wrf

WRF Dynamic Core

Diabatic Heating (dT/dt)

Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART)

Goddard Land Information System

Land-aerosol interactions

Surface emission and albedo

Aerosol direct effect

Goddard Radiation

Land-atmosphere interactions

Aerosol indirect effect

Cloud radiative forcing

Goddard Microphysics

Role of Goddard Radiation in WRF

Roger Shi


Goddard radiation packages
Goddard radiation packages

  • Goddard radiation package (original name CLIRAD) has been developed for two decades at NASA Goddard by Ming-Dah Chou and Max J. Suarez for use in general circulation models (GEOS GCM), regional model (MM5) and cloud-resolving models (GCE).

    References

    Chou M.-D., and M. J. Suarez, 1999: A solar radiation parameterization for atmospheric studies.

    NASA Tech. Rep. NASA/TM-1999-10460, vol. 15, 38 pp

    Chou M.-D., and M. J. Suarez, 2001: A thermal infrared radiation parameterization for atmospheric

    studies. NASA/TM-2001-104606, vol. 19, 55pp


New 2006 goddard sw radiation in comparison with old 1997 goddard sw radiation in wrf
New (2006) Goddard SW radiation in comparison with old (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRF

1) Optical depths for condensates (1st-order effect)

  • NewRad has a strict threshold of cloud optical depth (=0.0001) for cloud flags in order to account for thin-cloud radiative effects. (OldRad has a loose threshold (=0.05), and does not account for thin-cloud radiative forcing.)

  • NewRad accounts for optical properties of rain, ice+snow, and liquid cloud droplets. Ice cloud effective radius (25~125micron) depends on ambient temperature. (OldRad accounts for only ice and liquid cloud droplets. Ice cloud effective radius is fixed value (=80micron). )

    2) Radiative Transfer (2nd-ordereffect)

  • NewRad has a correct two-stream adding approximation in diffuse transmissivity. (OldRad uses incorrect diffuse transmissitivty. This is a critical bug in the code. ).

  • NewRad uses delta-Eddington approximation for reflection and transmittance of direct and diffuse radiation. (OldRad also uses delta-Eddington approximatatin for direct radiation, but it uses equations in Sagan and Pollock [JGR, 1967] for diffuse radiation.)

    3) Molecular absorption (3rd-ordereffect)

  • NewRad weights the molecular absorption coefficients by cosine of solar zenith angle. (OldRad uses the same molecular absorption coefficients without considering cosine of solar zenith angle.)

  • NewRad accounts for water vapor absorption. (OldRad does not account for water vapor absorption.)

  • NewRad accounts for O2 and CO2 absorption above and below cloud-top level. Below cloud-top level, the flux reduction rate depends on the ratio of clear-sky and cloudy-sky net radiation. (OldRad accounts for O2 and CO2 absorption only above cloud-top level.)

  • NewRad setup CO2 concentration for Y2000 (=336ppm). (OldRad set up 300ppm.)


Average cpu time in oldrad newrad and newradfast
Average CPU time in (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRFOldRad, NewRad and NewRadFast

Fast, Faster, Fastest!

Test bed

  • Old (OldRad) and new (NewRad) Goddard SW radiation were tested in all-sky conditions of 45x45x30-grid (x-y-z coordinations) domains to compare CPU time.

    Overcast option

  • A logical option (overcast) deals with either overcast cloud (cloud fraction=0 or 1; true) or broken cloud (cloud fraction 0~1; false). overcast=false requires two-stream solutions in different combination of clear-cloud sky cases, which result in much longer computational time.

(Toshi’s optimization)

i) 1-dimensionalized radiative transfer to skip nighttime computation, ii) removed redundant routines, and iii) added a new logical option (fast_overcast), and “fast_overcast =.true.” that uses a pre-computed look-up table for Fcloud/Fclear as a function of cloud albedo.


Comparison in sw flux and heating rate between newrad oldrad and newradfast
Comparison in SW flux and heating rate between (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRFNewRad, OldRad, and NewRadFast

Y-distance=120km

Results

  • NewRad-OldRad differences in surface downwelling shortwave radiation are up to 40W/m2 due mostly to upgrade (1). It has large discrepancy in heating profile up to 2K/day.

  • NewRad-NewRadFast differences in surface downwelling shortwave radiation are up to 1W/m2. It has discrepancy in heating profile up to 0.5K/day.


Options in goddard lw radiation code and cpu time
Options in Goddard LW radiation code and CPU time (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRF

Goddard LW logical options

  • “high=.true.”computes transmission functions in the CO2, O3, and the three water vapor bands with strong absorption using look-up table, while “high=.false.” use k-distribution methods for this (faster).

  • “trace = .true.” accounts for absorption due to N2O, CH4, CFCs, and the two minor CO2 bands in the LW window region, while “trace = .fase.” does not account (faster).

  • A combination of “high=.true.” & “trace=.true.” is most accurate.

Results

Each option (high or trace) costs about 0.6sec, thus the no-options experiment (R) save 1.2sec CPU time in comparison with the full-option experiment (RHT).


Comparison in lw flux and heating rate between rht rh and rt
Comparison in LW flux and heating rate between (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRFRHT, RH, and RT.

Y-distance=120km

Results

  • Downwelling longwave radiation between RHT and RT are similar.

  • LW cooling profiles between RHT and RH are largely different near the cloud top.

  • LW cooling profiles between RHT and RT are slightly different at TOA. If one include the stratosphere in model, the RHT-RT difference would become larger [Chou and Suarez 2001].


Aerosol direct effect

module_gocart_online.F (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRF

Aerosol Direct Effect

  • Goddard radiation module is liked to the GOCART module, which compute 11-SW-band and 10-LW-band aerosol optical properties for a given aerosol masses (sulfate, sea salt, dust, OC, and BC).

  • The module deals with IO process in GOCART aerosol masses for initial/boundary conditions.

module_radiation_driver.F

module_ra_goddard.F

module_gocart_offline.F

GOCART global aerosol masses


Aerosol direct effect1
Aerosol Direct Effect (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRF

  • Off-line GOCART-induced diurnally averaged SW and LW aerosol radiative forcing in d01.


Satellite data simulation unit sdsu for evaluating wrf and supporting nasa s mission
Satellite Data Simulation Unit (SDSU) (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRFfor evaluating WRF and supporting NASA’s mission

WRF output

Driver & Interface Module

Visible-IR

Optical properties

Microwave

Optical properties

Active Sensors

CALIPSO

ICESAT, and ground-based LIDAR

Passive Sensors

AVHRR,TRMM VIRS, MODIS, GOES, Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and etc.

Active Sensors

TRMM PR, GPM DPR, CloudSat CPR, Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR), W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar (WACR), and etc.

Passive Sensors

SSM/I, TRMM Microwave Imager, AMSR-E, AMSU, and MHS, ground-based Microwave Radiometer (MWR), Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP), and etc.


Sdsu wrf supports nasa global precipitation mission gpm
SDSU-WRF supports (1997) Goddard SW radiation in WRFNASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

  • Radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature are computed in off-line using the WRF-simulated meteorology and hydrometeors field via satellite-data simulation unit (SDSU).

  • Simulated Tb and reflectivity are used to support algorithm development for future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellites.


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