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Properties of matter. General Properties of Matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter . What are properties?. Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video. General Properties of matter.

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general properties of matter
General Properties of Matter
  • Matter is anything that has mass and volume
  • Everything is made of matter
what are properties
What are properties?
  • Characteristics used to describe an object
  • Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness
  • video
general properties of matter1
General Properties of matter
  • Mass, weight, volume, and density
  • Properties are used to identify a substance
what is mass
What is mass?
  • Mass is the amount of matter in an object
  • Mass is constant
  • Mass is also the measure of inertia
what is inertia
What is inertia?
  • Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion
  • The more mass the greater the inertia
  • How is mass related to inertia?
  • Why are properties of an object important?
  • Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
  • What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
  • Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
  • What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
  • What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
  • The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object
  • Weight changes with gravity
  • The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
weight formula
Weight formula
  • 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
  • Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)
  • W= m x g
  • What is your mass?
  • What is your weight in Newtons?
what is gravity
What is gravity?
  • The force of attraction between objects is gravity
  • All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
  • Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
gravitational pull
Gravitational pull
  • The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
  • Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
what affects gravity
What affects gravity?
  • The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases
  • gravity depends on mass and distance
  • The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
  • Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
  • The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
  • What are three properties of matter related to mass?
  • What is density and how is it calculated?
  • The density of water is 1.0 g/ml
  • Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
  • Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
  • Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water
  • Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
astronomy fact
Astronomy fact!
  • The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
  • If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
  • If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?
  • If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?
what is specific gravity
What is specific gravity?
  • A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
  • How is density different from specific gravity?
what is a physical property
What is a physical property?
  • Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
phases of matter video
Phases of matter (video)
  • Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
  • solids have a definite shape and volume
solid particle arrangement
Solid particle arrangement
  • Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate
  • Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
types of solids
Types of solids
  • Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)
  • Amorphous solids can lose their shape
examples of amorphous solids
Examples of amorphous solids
  • Tar, candle wax, glass
  • Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
liquid particle arrangement
Liquid particle arrangement
  • Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
  • Describe the shape of a liquid.
describe a liquid
Describe a liquid
  • Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
  • What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?
properties of liquids
Properties of liquids
  • Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container
  • Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
what is viscosity
What is viscosity?
  • The resistance of a liquid to flow
  • The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily
  • Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
behavior of liquids
Behavior of liquids
  • Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles
  • Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
surface tension video
Surface tension (video)
  • Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
  • Describe the viscosity of a liquid.
  • Describe a liquid’s shape.
  • How is adhesion different from cohesion?
  • Explain surface tension.
properties of gases
Properties of gases
  • Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)
  • They fill all the available space in a container
kinetic molecular theory of matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
  • Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
  • How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
gas laws
Gas laws
  • Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
charles law
Charles Law
  • Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
charles law1
Charles’ Law
  • As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases
  • Heating air causes it to expand
  • How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
  • The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
boyle s law1
Boyle’s law
  • If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)
  • The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
  • Plasma (phase)
  • most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
  • What are the four phases of matter?
  • Describe the plasma phase of matter.
phase changes video
Phase changes (video)
  • Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
what is a physical change
What is a physical change?
  • Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties
  • Type of matter remains the same
  • Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
physical changes
Physical changes
  • Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
melting video
Melting video
  • Phase change from a solid to a liquid
melting point
Melting point
  • Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid
  • Physical property
  • How is melting different from freezing?
phase changes video1
Phase changes (video)
  • Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant
  • Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
  • Phase change from a liquid to a gas
boiling point video
Boiling point (video)
  • The temperature in which a liquid boils
  • Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
freezing video
Freezing (video)
  • Phase change of a liquid to a solid
  • The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
  • Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid
  • Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
  • Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
sublimation examples
Sublimation examples
  • Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
chemical properties
Chemical properties
  • Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties
  • Ex: flammability
chemical changes
Chemical changes
  • The change of a substance into a new and different substance
  • Also known as a chemical reaction
  • video
  • What is another name for a chemical change?
  • Describe sublimation.
  • How is a chemical change different from a physical change?