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PLANET EARTH. HISTORY OF EARTH. SOME EFFECTS OF MAN ON THE ENVIRONMENT. SOME PAST ENVIRONMENTS . Gin Lane by Hogarth (1750). Legacy of industrial revolution by Lowry. LONDON SMOG OF 1952. THE 20 th CENTURY. Environmental change is as old as the planet Man has continually altered the

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some past environments
SOME PAST ENVIRONMENTS

Gin Lane by Hogarth (1750)

Legacy of industrial revolution by Lowry

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the 20 th century
THE 20th CENTURY
  • Environmental change is as old
  • as the planet
  • Man has continually altered the
  • environment, but there has never
  • been anything like the 20th century

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latter half of 20 th century
LATTER HALF OF 20th CENTURY
  • 19501997
  • Population (bln) 2.5 5.8
  • Life expectancy at birth 47 67
  • Megacities (> 8 mln) 2 25
  • Food (avg cal/capita) 1980 2770
  • Fish catch (mln tons) 19 91
  • Water use (bln cu m) 1300 4200
  • Rain forest cover index 100 70
  • CO2 emissions (bln t C) 1.6 7.0
  • CFC in atmosphere (ppb) <1 3.0

Source:World Resources Institute, 1996

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improved lot of mankind
IMPROVED LOT OF MANKIND
  • By many indicators the lot of mankind has vastly improved. For example:
    • Prosperity
    • Life expectancy
    • Education
  • However this does not mean that things are good enough

Lomborg, 2001

Also there are threats and unknowns

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economic development
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • The good news is good:never before have so many experienced so rapid an improvement in their standards of living
  • The bad news is appalling: a large number of desperately poor countries are falling further behind

Wolf, Financial Times, 2003

Question: are there environmental implications of the good news?

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DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT: SCHEMATIC

  • Affluence problems: manyindustrialisation problems plus concerns over, e.g.
  • GM foods
  • chemicals in environment
  • nuclear energy
  • destruction of countryside
  • pressure on wildlife
  • transport: roads, airports
  • Industrialisation problems, e.g
  • SO2 and other toxic industrial and transport related emissions
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • total consumption of water, energy and other non renewable resources
  • waste
  • urbanisation
  • child labour
  • Scope: local, regional and global
  • Poverty problems, e.g
  • Malnutrition
  • lack of clean water
  • lack of sanitation
  • smoke from cooking
  • pressure on local resources e.g. wood for fires
  • child labour
  • Scope: local

Economic development (GDP)

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major global environmental issues
MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • Include:
  • Greenhouse gases and global warming
  • Use of non renewable resources
  • Fresh water availability and quality
  • Food availability and distribution
  • Pollution and waste
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Deforestation

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years of lost life caused by some major risk factors
YEARS OF LOST LIFE CAUSED BY SOME MAJOR RISK FACTORS

Malnutrition

Years of life lost

%

Water &Sanitation

Tobacco

Physical inactivity

Unsafe sex

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factor four
FACTOR FOUR

If the world population and average wealth doubles, then for there to be no increase in environmental impact the third term will have to improve by dramatic factor of 4

This is merely to maintain the ‘status quo’. To reduce environmental impact, higher values are required. For example to halve greenhouse gas emissions an improvement factor of 8 would be needed

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ecological footprints
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS

If the entire world lived like North Americans, it would take three planet Earths to support the present world population

Energy is the main component of this

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potential impact of developing countries schematic
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: SCHEMATIC

Global environmental impact in terms of resource depletion and major emissions

Developing countries if resource consumption and emission figures increase to those of developed countries

Developed countries

20006 billion people

21009 billion people

Year and global population

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Adapted from an FoE publication

major global environmental challenges
MAJOR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
  • 1.2 billion people living in poverty on less than 1 US dollar a day
  • Potential impact of industrialising countries like China and India, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases
  • Disproportionate impact of developed countries, e.g. in generation of greenhouse gases

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economic growth and human happiness
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN HAPPINESS

In economically developed countries the link between economic growth and human happiness is breakingSomething is missing!

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MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS

SELF-ACTUALISATIONpursue inner talent, creativity, fulfilment

SELF-ESTEEMachievement, mastery, recognition, respect

BELONGING, LOVE friends, family, spouse

SAFETYsecurity, stability, freedom from fear

PHYSIOLOGICAL food, water, shelter, warmth

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geographical impact of our actions
GEOGRAPHICAL IMPACT OF OUR ACTIONS
  • Some things we do impact locally, e.g. waste generation
  • Some things we do impact locally and globally, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions

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some issues to consider
SOME ISSUES TO CONSIDER
  • Consider:
    • What effect our actions have on our local environment
    • What effect our actions have on the global environment
    • What example are we setting to less developed countries

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some reasons for an individual s position on the environment
Some reasons for an individual’s position on the environment

Personal values

Laws

Societal ‘norms’

Available Options

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