WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
The Art of War • The highest realization of warfare is to attack the enemy’s plans; next is to attack their alliances; next to attack their army; and the lowest is to attack their fortified cities. Thus, one who excels at employing the military subjugates other peoples armies without engaging in battle, captures fortified cities without attacking them, and destroys other people’s states without prolonged fighting.’
The Art of War • Preserving the enemy’s state capital is best, destroying their state capital second-best. Preserving their army best, destroying their army second-best. Preserving their battalions is best, destroying their battalions second-best. Preserving their companies is best, destroying their companies is second-best…For this reason attaining 100 victories in 100 battles is not the pinnacle of excellence. Subjugating the enemy’s army without fighting is the true pinnacle of excellence.
WEAPONS PROLIFERATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT ) is a treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, started in July 1, 1968. There are currently 189 countries party to the treaty, five of which have nuclear weapons: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the People's Republic of China (the permanent members of the UN Security Council). • Only four recognized sovereign states are not parties to the treaty: India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea. India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and possess nuclear weapons. The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles. Although the concept of "pillars" appears nowhere in the NPT, the treaty is nevertheless sometimes interpreted as having three pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament, and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.
WEAPONS PROLIFERATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST • Middle East has become a centre of attention of international and regional political affairs. Ever since the inception of Israel, the region has been in continuous turmoil and witnessed six official wars and continuous violence in this region. The bombing of Lebanon, the destruction of Gaza, the ongoing war in Iraq, the question of Palestinian statehood, regional aggression and military provocation.
WEAPONS PROLIFERATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST • To date, peace in the Middle East seems a distant dream for the majority of its peoples. The situation is the Middle East is further complicated by Iranian nuclear ambitions and continuous armed conflicts in Iraq and intermittent military interventions in Syria and Lebanon. Israel, the only non-Arab and non-Muslim country in the region, is currently counted among unofficial nuclear powers, non-signatories of NPT.
Article 26 In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating … plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments. Charterof theUnitedNations We the Peoples of the United Nations … United for a Better World Article 11 The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments… United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
Article 51 Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security. Charter of the United Nations We the Peoples of the United Nations … United for a Better World United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
The General Assembly. Alarmed by the threat to the very survival of mankind posed by the existence of nuclear weapons and the continuing arms race, and recalling the devastation inflicted by all wars, Convincedthat disarmament and arms limitation, particularly in the nuclear field, are essential for the prevention of the danger of nuclear war and the strengthening of international peace and security …….., Having resolved to lay the foundations of an international disarmament strategy which aims at general and complete disarmament under effective international control. 10th SPECIAL SESSION DEVOTED TO DISARMAMENT -1978 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
FACTS: • World military expenditure peaked at $1.3 trillion in 1987. After a period of decline, it slowly rising today and now stands at more than $ 839 billion, accounting for 2.6% of world GDP and corresponding to an average of $137 per capita. • Industrialized countries account for about 80 per cent of global military expenditures. The United States accounts for almost half of the world’s total arms production; France and UK for 10 percent each and Germany, Russia and Japan – for roughly 4 per cent each. • In 1945, only one nation possessed a nuclear bomb. Today, there are five recognized nuclear-weapon States in terms of the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons, and three nuclear-weapon capable States. • More than 30,000 nuclear warheads are still present in the world, many on high alert, ready to be launched on warning. United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
MORE FACTS: • Today, 80 per cent of the world’s spending on armaments is on conventional weapons and weapons systems. • The annual global trade in conventional arms is estimated to be around $30 billion. Nearly 70 per cent of this expenditure was incurred by importing countries from the developing world. • One-third of the nations of the earth are affected by mines and unexploded ordinance (UXO). The countries most affected are those least able to reverse the devastating impact of mines. • About 550 million small arms are in circulation world-wide. United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
DISARMAMENT ISSUES • Weapons of Mass Destruction • Conventional Weapons • Outer Space • Disarmament and Development • Regional Disarmament • Emerging Issues United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Weapons of Mass Destruction Conventional Weapons • Nuclear Weapons Outer Space • Chemical Weapons Disarmament and Development • Biological Weapons Regional Disarmament • WMD Terrorism Emerging Issues
NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Bilateral agreements: • The 1972 SALT I Agreement • The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) • The 1979 SALT II Treaty • The 1987 Intermediate‑and Shorter - Range Nuclear • Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) • The 1991 Strategic Arms Limitation and Reduction Treaty • (START I) United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Bilateral agreements: • The 1992 Lisbon Protocol to START I • The 1993 Strategic Arms Limitation and Reduction Treaty II • (START II) • 2000-with the ratification of START II by the Russian Federation, the US Senate needs to approve a 1997 protocol to the Treaty in order for the Treaty to enter into force. This will then open the way for formal START III negotiations to begin. • 2002 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions • Unilateral reductions United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
NUCLEAR WEAPONS Multilateral agreements • The 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (Partial Test-Ban Treaty) • The 1968 Treaty on the Non -Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) • - Nuclear Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy • Agency (IAEA) • - The 1997 Model Additional Protocol • The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) • The Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO PrepCom, based in Vienna) • Future agreements: • - Fissile Material Treaty United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
KEEPING THE WORLD - AND OUTER SPACE -FREE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
CHEMICAL WEAPONS • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) • - Entered into force 1997 • The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), The Hague, Netherlands • BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS • Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) • - Entered into force 1975. • Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (Geneva Protocol) • -Signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925. Prohibits the use of biological or chemical weapons in war. United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
The threat is real and global: small nuclear device or radiological materials, chemical or bioterrorism. Objective: To ensure that terrorists do not acquire and use Weapons of Mass Destruction: National defense and counter- terrorism; prevention through disarmament. Prevention:Strengthened international disarmament agreements and implementing agencies: NPT and IAEA, physical protection of nuclear material, tracking of illicit material traffic, vigorous chemical weapons inspection regime by OPCW; and monitoring of compliance and verification of the BWC. WMD TERRORISM United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Conventional Weapons Weapons of Mass Destruction • Small Arms & Light Weapons Outer Space • Anti-personnel Landmines Disarmament & Development • Major Conventional Weapons Regional Disarmament Emerging Issues
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 SMALL ARMS & LIGHT WEAPONS • In terms of the carnage they cause, small arms, indeed could well be described as “weapons of mass destruction”. • Secretary-General’s Millennium Report, 2000 • United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. • Coordinating Action on Small Arms (CASA) • Practical Disarmament Measures - Trust Fund for the Consolidation of Peace through Practical Disarmament Measures
ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES • Amended Protocol II to the Convention on • Certain Conventional Weapons • - entered into force in 1998 • Mine-Ban Convention • - entered into force in 1999 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
TRANSPARENCY MEASURES FOR CONVENTIONAL ARMS • United Nations Register of Conventional Arms • - established in 1992 • United Nations system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures • - introduced in 1980 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
MULTILATERAL DISARMAMENTConventional Arms Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) - entered into force in 1980 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) - entered into force in 1990 United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Outer Space Weapons of Mass Destruction Multilateral treaties: Conventional Weapons • 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities • of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer • Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial • Bodies (Outer Space Treaty) Disarmament & Development • 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the • Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water • (Partial Test - Ban Treaty) Regional Disarmament • 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States • on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies Emerging Issues
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Disarmament & Development Weapons of Mass Destruction • The International Conference on the • Relationship between Disarmament • and Development, convened in 1987 • - The Programme of Action Conventional Weapons Outer Space • High-level Steering Group on • Disarmament and Development • set up in May 1999 Regional Disarmament Emerging Issues
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Regional Disarmament Weapons of Mass Destruction • Regional agreements in the areas • of nuclear and conventional • disarmament and non-proliferation Conventional Weapons • United Nations regional centres • for peace and disarmament Outer Space Disarmament & Development • Cooperation with regional • inter-governmental organizations Emerging Issues
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Emerging Issues Weapons of Mass Destruction • Missile proliferation and missile • defences Conventional Weapons Outer Space • Information security • Revolution in military affairs Disarmament & Development Regional Disarmament
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) OPCW (The Hague) Non-UN bodies: UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) Preparatory Commission for CTBTO (Vienna) IAEA (Vienna) S-G’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters DISARMAMENT MACHINERY GeneralAssembly (deliberative) Security Council Special sessions on disarmament: 1978, 1982 and 1988 Conference on Disarmament (negotiating forum) Disarmament Commission First Committee
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 CD Secretariat and Conference Support Branch (Geneva) Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch Conventional Arms Branch Monitoring, Database and Information Branch Regional Disarmament Branch Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs Director and Deputy to USG Centres for: Asia, Africa, and Latin America & Caribbean
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 DISARMAMENT INFORMATION AND OUTREACH ACTIVITIES • United Nations Disarmament Information • Programme (Voluntary Trust Fund) • United Nations Disarmament Fellowship Programme • Disarmament Week - 24 October • Messenger of Peace (US actor and producer Michael Douglas) • Liaison with civil society, NGOs and academic institutions • Cooperation with DPI
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 DISARMAMENT INFORMATION RESOURCES • DDA Internet website (disarmament.un.org) • DDA Publications: • United Nations Disarmament Yearbook • Quarterly DDA Update • Occasional papers • Publications of the Regional Centres (e.g. Bulletin Africain pour la Paix) • DDA Library • DDA Audio-visual materials (documentary on small arms; PowerPoint • presentation) • Tour-guide exhibit at Headquarters • Briefing for visiting groups (call 212 963 4440) • UNIDIR publications and activities
United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs, 2002 CONTACTINFORMATION: Mailing address: Department for Disarmament Affairs United Nations NYC, NY 10017 USA Telephone: 1 212 963 2874; 7714; 8199 Fax: 1 212 963 1121 Internet: disarmament.un.org Email : email@example.com