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High Tech Product Design and Rapid Prototyping ME221 - MBA 290M - INFOSYS 290.8 Prof. Paul Wright, A. Martin Berlin Chair in Mechanical Engineering Chief Scientist of CITRIS @ UC Berkeley Co-Director of the Berkeley Wireless Research Center

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high tech product design and rapid prototyping me221 mba 290m infosys 290 8

High Tech Product Design andRapid PrototypingME221 - MBA 290M - INFOSYS 290.8

Prof. Paul Wright, A. Martin Berlin Chair in Mechanical Engineering

Chief Scientist of CITRIS @ UC Berkeley

Co-Director of the Berkeley Wireless Research Center

Co-Director of the Berkeley Manufacturing Institute

Week 4

product constraints
Will your company make motes/electronics/sensors?

Very difficult, given the present state of other companies already in the field

Will your company use motes for a product that assumes an infrastructure?

Challenging to work with big governments, bureaucracies (e.g City of Berkeley, or BART)…

Will you be a “smart-design” team like IDEO or Frog design that creates a product around a base-station and mobile system that can be used in a defined setting?...

More likely to work…

Product constraints
this week s homework wed
Use disposable or digital camera to capture user-needs & products, discuss in group

Wednesday 9/20 –

Group’s ‘first-idea’ on poster board

“Glimpse Collage” 5%

Collection of photographs at first sight but with a glimpse of what people need --- or what they might do with a proposed product

This week’s homework (Wed.)
looking ahead one assignment
9/27 Sketch best concept +

200 word Scenario +

8-12 frame Story Board; these three items = 10%

The Story Board is laid out to “tell a story” like a cartoon strip tells a story maybe without any words

Our Story Board is not a cartoon in the “funny” sense (though it can be if you want to) … More that it can temporally tell how the user interacts with the product …

Looking ahead one assignment
product scenario
The Moisture Peak is a moisture tool that is a wireless moisture meter for detecting water on or beneath various surfaces. This device will include a hand held device called the “Peak” and a detachable pin set called the “Probe”.Product Scenario


Pencil Sketch


4 weeks later
4 weeks later

Boy, I’m glad you bought the Moisture Peak, look how good our tomatoes turned out this season!!

products for this semester
Energy products (Nate Ota)

Healthcare products (Ravi Nemana and Trevor Pering)

But of course you have a free choice of any other topic that is creative

First some possible examples from Ravi

Mote review

A new paradigm for distributed sensing

Products for this semester
main take away today since mid 90s convergence of sensing computing and communication
Small, low-cost, low-power computer (mote)

The computer monitors one or more sensors: temperature, light, sound, position, acceleration, vibration, stress, weight, pressure, humidity, etc.

The computer(s) connect to the base-station and/or other motes with a radio link. The radio link we will use allows a mote to transmit at a 50m range indoors / 125m range outdoors Power consumption, size and cost are the barriers to longer distances. Since a fundamental concept with motes is tiny size (and associated tiny cost), small and low-power radios are normal, not seen to be a disadvantage.

Main “take away today” Since mid-90s = convergence of sensing, computing and communication
macro to micro computers

“Pico Cube”

Macro to Micro Computers

Stand alonecomputers 1960s

Connected computers 1980s

Distributed computers 2000s

“Smart Dust” 2010

Vast reduction in cost, but additional capability

Adapted from Various Sources:

E.g. G. Bell, R. Newton, J, Rabaey, D. Culler, DR research team

Sensor (AtoD) linked to a ‘tiny’ computer

Possible to do some local averaging etc

Digital information shared with other computers in a network using “garbage band” frequencies

450 MHz

900 MHz

2.4 GHz

Point to point



Basic: Sensing + Local Computing + Communications + Computing at a Base Station including a Decision (e.g. sensor shows an “out of desirable range”)












13.56 MHz




900 MHz

2.45 GHz

134 KHz

125 KHz

motes http www moteiv com
Please go to this website to see the hardware and software we will be using

Tmote Sky hardware platform

The Tmote Sky sensor suite is an on-board sensor suite that can be optionally included with each Tmote Sky device. The sensor suite includes humidity, temperature, photosynthetically active (PAR), and total solar radiation (TSR) sensors. The humidity and temperature sensor is produced by Sensirion, and the light sensors are produced by Hamamatsu.

Boomerang 2.0.4 software for sending information between motes (e.g. a temperature signal)

Motes: http://www.moteiv.com/
how things connect
How Things Connect


e.g. your application


Serial Forwarder

e.g. REM

USB conn.


Base station

Programming Board


Trawler is a client of the serial forwarded server (makes sensor network data available to higher level applications)


ieee 802 15 4 compliant device
250kbps 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Chipcon Wireless Transceiver

Interoperability with other IEEE 802.15.4 devices

8MHz Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller (10kB RAM, 48kB Flash)

Integrated ADC, DAC, Supply Voltage Supervisor, and DMA Controller

Integrated onboard antenna with 50m range indoors / 125m range outdoors

Optional Integrated Humidity, Temperature, and Light sensors

IEEE 802.15.4 compliant device
summary version ieee 802 15 4 compliant device
Wireless mesh networking

250kbps radio

10kB RAM

48kB flash

1MB storage

Integrated on-board antenna providing up to 125 meter range

12-bit ADC and DAC

USB protocol for programming

Summary version: IEEE 802.15.4 compliant device
ieee 802 15 4 compliant device16
Ultra low current consumption

Fast wakeup from sleep (<6us)

Hardware link-layer encryption and authentication

Programming and data collection via USB

16-pin expansion support and optional SMA antenna connector

TinyOS support : mesh networking and communication implementation

FCC modular certification : conforms to all US and Canada regulations

IEEE 802.15.4 compliant device
http www tinyos net faq html

TinyOS is an event-based operating system intended for use in sensor networks. TinyOS uses a programming model that is based on the concept of ‘integrating' software components together to produce a working program.

TinyOS is developed for ad-hoc communication, not reliability

Limited resources (memory) requiring very efficient resource allocation

real performance of tinyos packet loss
Real Performance of TinyOS Packet Loss



Increasing Transmission Frequency

Shane Erickson, SUPERB

tinyos not a traditional os
Non-blocking Asynchronous

Events (I hear something on the radio)

Commands (turn on the light)

Tasks (average the last 10 sensor values)

Sum of components together = Application

TinyOS: Not a traditional OS

= non-blocking event-based app-specific scheduler

visualization of tinyos

sensing application


Routing Layer


Messaging Layer


UART Packet

Radio Packet


Radio byte

UART byte











Visualization of TinyOS

Source: Culler et al.

looking ahead to a future week
Backup slides

Anticipating FAQs on motes versus RFIDs

Looking ahead to a future week
comparison with rfid 3 main rfid types for purposes of keeping things simple for now
A. Low Frequency LF (125 KiloHertz) and High Frequency HF (13.56 MegaHertz)

The initial deployments of RFID operating at a low frequency band and relying on magnetic coil readers

B. Ultra High Frequency UHF (900 MegaHertz)

Now the current area of excitement for identifying many tags at once over a greater distance than LF or HF and relying on a radio frequency reader

Comparison with RFID – 3 Main RFID types for purposes of “keeping things simple for now”
and again to defuse any mystery about the technology
Every time we check out of a store like the Gap a simple one-bit RFID is used to check for a remaining security tag on your clothes

Needs large cage like structure adjacent to door to emit strong enough magnetic field to a remaining tag

One-bit (on/off) signal sounds alarm if a tag is present on item of clothing…

And again to defuse any mystery about the technology…

Tag types

  • Passive Transponders (Tags)
    • LF, HF, UHF
  • Active Transponders (Tags)
      • UHF 400, 900 MHz, 2.45 GHz
  • Semi-Passive Tags such as the FasTrak
    • 900MHz or 2.45 GHz
fastrak on bay bridge
Not an LF or HF passive tag

Semi-active tag = FasTrak

Battery inside (or some sort of power source)

Radio Frequency allows wake up of system and battery provides the strength to send signal back to reader

FasTrak on Bay Bridge
low frequency 125khz rfid
Passive –

Gets energy from reader to power antennae

Magnetic field loops around

Tags work because reader produces a magnetic field zone --- field changes enough to activate chips – (door reader)

Make larger antenna --- Or have a bigger flux to read further (Bigger net catches more fish)

Low Frequency (125KHz) RFID
high frequency hf 13mhz
Same …

Magnetic fields are always present again

Pros Cons ---

Pro = High Frequency allow photo-etching of antenna and so tags are very cheap to manufacture

Trade offs = delicate so must be in limited package and the range of HF is often less than LF…

(LF = more kinds of form factor)

High Frequency HF (13MHz)
what happens inside the lf and hf readers
1. A magnetic coil (say on our lab door) is the physical interface between the reader and “the world”

2. An integrated circuit in the reader sends signals to an oscillator, creating an alternating current in the reader’s coil

What happens inside the LF and HF readers?
when you walk up with your tag
3. The coil in the reader sits there creating a field for any tag that arrives and is close enough (a few inches say) to be activated…

4. So the magnetic coil in the reader interacts with the coil in the tag, to induce a current the causes a charge to flow into the capacitor on the tag…A diode in the tag’s circuit allows charge to build up

When you walk up with your tag…
the circuit for the tag id
4. The charge accumulates in the capacitor and at a critical voltage level, the tags integrated circuit (IC) is activated and this transmits the ID

5. High and low levels of the digital signal from the IC – corresponding to the ones and zeros encoding the ID-number, turn the transistor on and off

The circuit for the tag ID…
6. The transistor turns off and on, varying the resistance of the tag circuit, consequently creating a varying magnetic filed in the tags coil. The tag’s coil then interacts with the reader’s coil.

7. Magnetic fluctuations cause changes in the current flow from the reader’s coil to the reader’s A/D converter, and these are in the same pattern as the ones and zeros transmitted by the tag.