Nanotechnology the big and small of it
Download
1 / 38

Nanotechnology The Big and Small of it - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 316 Views
  • Updated On :

Buckyballs and Nanotechnology Harry C. Dorn VA Tech. Nanotechnology The Big and Small of it. Richard Feynman “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” Cal Tech, Dec. 29, 1959. Why can’t we write the entire 24 Volumes of the Encyclopedia Brittanica on the head of a pin?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nanotechnology The Big and Small of it' - paul2


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Nanotechnology the big and small of it

Buckyballs and Nanotechnology

Harry C. Dorn

VA Tech

NanotechnologyThe BigandSmall of it


Richard Feynman

“There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”

Cal Tech, Dec. 29, 1959

Why can’t we write

the entire 24 Volumes

of the Encyclopedia

Brittanica on the

head of a pin?

How do we write small?

Miniaturizing the

Computer?

Problems of Lubrication

A hundred Tiny Hands

Atoms in

a Small World

Origins of Nanotechnology


Nanotechnology: A Matter of Size

and Control

Think very small (“nano” = 1 billionth of a meter) = 10 Hatoms;

or, 1 human hair = 100,000 nanometers!

The precise, highly controlled assembly of atoms and molecules into new materials and devices with unique, possibly revolutionary properties

  • Carbon Nanotubes

  • 100 times stronger than steel

  • Conduct electricity better than copper

  • Conduct heat better than diamonds

  • Depending on current, can either: - Act as a metal (conductor) - Act as semiconductor (transistor)

  • Markets now exist for nanotubes as raw material

Individual iron atoms positioned in an oval “corral”

on a copper surface, using a scanning tunneling microscope

--IBM Almaden Research Center

Single wall carbon nanotube with attached

protein receptors


Nanotechnology Future Vision: 2015

Tissues and organs artificially grown on nanopatterned scaffolds

Major applications

anticipated in:

Biomedicine

Defense/

Homeland Security

Electronics/

Information Technology

Energy/

Environment

Nanostructured capsules deliver drugs directly to diseased tissue

Optoelectric retinal implants for the blind

Nanocoatings produce body friendly, longer lasting implants

Cochlear implants to restore hearing

Nanostructured materials reduce total weight carried from 120 to 50 pounds

“Chameleon” uniform changes colors with background

Ultralightweight power pack driven by fuel cell with nanomembranes

Weapon fires superpenetrating projectiles or non-lethal net of carbon nanofibers

Sensors imbedded in clothing monitor vital signs, detect toxins

Nanofibers in fabric can close to block chemicals,

or stiffien to form a splint

“Nanomuscles” add strength and endurance when needed

MIT, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies


Allotropes of carbon pre 1985

Diamonds

Cubic, Crystalline

sp3 hybridized

High Melting Point

Hardness 10

Allotropes of Carbon (Pre-1985)

Graphite

Hexagonal, Black Sheets

sp2 hybridized

High Melting Point

Hardness 1-2


New carbonaceous materials
New Carbonaceous Materials

Bethune, Dorn, Stevenson

Nature 1994

Stevenson, Balch,

Bible, Dorn, et al

Nature 1999

Iijima, et al

Nature 1993

Bethune, et al

Nature 1993

Smalley, et al

Nature 1985


Smalley kroto and curl 1984 5
Smalley, Kroto, and Curl (1984-5)

Laser Apparatus

Large Fullerenes

C60, Fullerenes,BuckyBalls!

0.2 m

0.7 nm


Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (Don Bethune, IBM)

Jan ‘93: 2% Co burn –“rubbery soot” and “spider web structures”


Carbon nanotubes
Carbon Nanotubes

Single-wall Carbon Nanotubes:A Major Application

Two-dimensional imaging of electronic

wavefunctions in carbon nanotubes

S.G. LEMAY, et al. Nature412, 617 - 620 (2001)

TU Delft/Gripp Design

Nature412 (2001)


Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

0 1 2 3

Diameter (nm)

- Bethune, et al., Nature 363, 605 (1993)

  • Iijima & Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993) - Fe catalyst, with methane



Discovery of trimetallic nitride template tnt endohedral metallofullerenes 1109

Discovery of Trimetallic Nitride Template (TNT)Endohedral Metallofullerenes“1109”


Unoptimized production of sc 3 n@c 80
Unoptimized Production of Sc[email protected]

m/e=1109

Stevenson, Dorn

Anal. Chem. 1994


Kratschmer huffman electric arc synthesis
Kratschmer-Huffman Electric-Arc Synthesis

Source of nitrogen?

Air leak! nitrogen, oxygen

H. C. Dorn

1109 Hahn Hall!


Trimetallic nitride template metallofullerenes a 3 n@c 80
Trimetallic Nitride TemplateMetallofullerenes [email protected]

[email protected] is the third most abundant fullerene or endohedral metallofullerene !

Stevenson, Balch, Bible, and Dorn, Nature 1999


Tnt metallofullerenes encapsulation of other metals
TNT Metallofullerenes:Encapsulation of Other Metals

Various combinations:

A3, A2B, AB2


Enabling nanotechnologies for revolutionary advancement in medical diagnostics and therapeutics




Nano and Macro

Hexagon and Pentagon Motifs

Devil’s Postpile

National Monument, CA


Medical nanotechnology applications
MedicalNanotechnologyApplications





Nanotechnology one grand challenge cancer
Nanotechnology- One Grand Challenge-Cancer

  • Family of diseases

  • Cancer is a disease process

    • Proliferation

    • Defects in Apoptosis

    • Micro-Invasion

    • Immune Evasion

    • Cellular Recruitment

    • Dissemination


The human and economic burden of cancer on our society continues to grow…

  • Cancer is now the #1 killer

    This year: 570,300 Americans will die of cancer

    1,372,900 Americans will hear the words “you have cancer…”

More Progress is Needed to Reduce Death Rates*

586.8

1950

2002

600

500

400

Death Rate Per 100,000

300

241.7

193.2

193.9

180.7

200

56.5

100

48.1

22.8

0

HeartDiseases

CerebrovascularDiseases

Pneumonia/Influenza

Cancer

* Age-adjusted to 2000 US standard population. Sources: 1950 Mortality Data - CDC/NCHS, NVSS, Mortality Revised. 2002 Mortality Data–NVSR-Death Final Data 2002–Volume 53, No. 5. Cost data from American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2005.


The human and economic burden of cancer on our society continues to grow…

  • 9.6 million cancer survivors in the United States today

  • Healthcare costs attributable to cancer at $189 billion/year

Chronic Disease with Need for Effective and Accessible Monitoring and New Therapy Strategies

The number of people living with a diagnosis of cancer has increased dramatically

Data Source : November 2003 Submission: Populations from January 2001 were based on the average of the July 2000 and July 2001 population estimates from the US Bureau of Census. Complete prevalence is estimated using the completeness index method (Capocaccia et. al. 1997, Merrill et. al. 2000). US Estimated Prevalence counts were estimated by applying US populations to SEER 9 Limited Duration Prevalence proportions.


Nanotechnology and Cancer continues to grow…

Fluorescein

(detecting agent)

Folic acid

(targeting agent)

G5-polyamidoamine

(dendrimer platform)

Methotrexate

(therapeutic agent)

Dr. James Baker, University of Michigan


Nanotechnology and Cancer continues to grow…

MTX30 mg/kg total

Nano construct3 mg/kg total MTX

Dr. James Baker, University of Michigan


NIH: Metallofullerene NanoPlatform for Imaging & Treating continues to grow…

Infiltrative Glioma

Medical College of Virginia

Panos Fatouros PhD,

William Broaddus MD

Joe Kalen PhD, Jim Tatum MD*

Virginia Tech

Harry Dorn PhD

Harry Gibson PhD

.


neutron activation continues to grow…

dipole-dipole

Large atomic cross-section

fluorescence activation

unpaired

electrons

H2O

Radiotherapy

X-ray contrast

Targeted contrast

MRI contrast

Nanoscale Physics and Medicine


A new nanosphere platform multi modal functionalized metallofullerenes fmfs

IDEALIZED PROBE: S1, S2 = signaling units; V = vector unit for targeted delivery; T = therapeutic unit. In this case T is endo but it can be exo.

CURRENT PROBE: Pegylated-Hydroxylated fMFs: [email protected],(M=Gd, Lu, Tb)

3

A NEW NANOSPHERE PLATFORM: MULTI-MODAL FUNCTIONALIZED METALLOFULLERENES (fMFs)

MULTI-MODALITY DIAGNOSTICS

  • M=Gd, MRI CONTRAST

  • M=Lu, X-RAY CONTRAST

  • M= Tb FLUORESCENCE

  • M=166Ho,177Lu RADIOLABEL

    DUAL DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC AGENTS

  • M=166Ho,177Lu RADIOISOTOPES

  • PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY

    TARGETED DELIVERY APPROACHES

  • BONE VECTOR

  • BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER

  • DIRECT TUMOR INFUSION


Endohedral metallofullerene mri contrast agents
ENDOHEDRAL METALLOFULLERENE MRI Contrast Agents for targeted delivery; T = therapeutic unit. In this case T is

Shinohara (Nagoya), Wilson (Rice), and Bolskar (TDA) groups have reported significant increases in the 1H MRI T1 spin-lattice relaxivity ratesfor [email protected](OH)n [email protected](CO2H)n derivatives in comparison with commerical agents


Signal Intensity profiles with respect to baseline profile along line shown in image

Baseline

90 min

30 min

120 min

60 min

150 min

75 min

175 min

Figure 10. T1-Weighted Images of Direct Infusion into Rat Brain of 0.0131 mM fMF 3a (left) and 0.5 mM Omniscan (right)

Rat Brain T1w Images of Direct Infusion (0.2 ml/min) of 0.0131 mM Gd3-fMF(left)and 0.50 mM Gd-DTPA(right)

90 min

30 min

120 min

60 min

150 min

75 min

175 min


T along line shown in image1w-MRI Images (2.4 T): Rat

Tumor Delineation by Infused Gd3N-fMF

Baseline

e

Baseline

12 min

0.2 uL/min

22 min

1.0 uL/min

37 min

2.0 uL/min

14 Days Post Tumor Implantation, Infused 12 ml of 0.013 mM Gd3N-fMF

18 Days Post Tumor Implantation

4 days Post Infusion of Gd3N-fMF

51 min

5.0 uL/min

62 min

0.2 uL/min

85 min

0.5 uL/min

98 min

0.5 uL/min

123 min

0.5 uL/min

133 min

0.5 uL/min

19 Days Post Tumor Implantation

5 days Post Infusion of Gd3N-fMF

17 Days Post Tumor Implantation

3 days Post Infusion of Gd3N-fMF

August 15, 2003


Nanotechnology and Cancer along line shown in image

“A grand challenge is the ability to detect cancer earlier – and the answer almost certainly will be nanotechnology”

“In addition to detecting cancer, nano-based techniques will enable physicians to determine whether a particular treatment is working”

Dr. Richard Smalley, Nobel Laureate,

October 2003

Leukemia Victim, October 2005


“There’s no use trying” she said: “one can’t believe impossible things.” “I dare say you haven’t had much practice. “ said the Queen. When I was your age, I always did it for half an hour a day. Why, sometimes, I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.” Lewis Carroll Alice Through the Looking Glass“If you don’t make mistakes, you’re not working on hard enough problems, and that’s a big mistake” F. Wilczek


College of Natural believe impossible things.” “I dare say you haven’t had much practice. “ said the Queen. When I was your age, I always did it for half an hour a day. Why, sometimes, I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.”

Resources

College of Science

College of Engineering

College of Agriculture

& Life Sciences


ad