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ECT455/HCI513 E-Commerce Web Site Engineering Lecture 9 Wireless Internet and M-Business Wireless Technology and Devices Wireless development First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone

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ect455 hci513 e commerce web site engineering

ECT455/HCI513E-Commerce Web Site Engineering

Lecture 9

Wireless Internet and M-Business

wireless technology and devices
Wireless Technology and Devices
  • Wireless development
    • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone
    • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide
    • Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem
  • Wireless devices
    • Personal digital assistants (PDAs), Palm OS
    • Digital cellular phones (WAP Phones)
    • Two-way pagers (RIM Blackberry)
    • MS Windows CE/Pocket PC
slide3

Wireless System Topology

Point-to-point topology

Networked topology

Limitation: can’t access the Web, send email or running remote applications

evolution of wireless technologies
Evolution of Wireless Technologies
  • Analog Technology (AMPS)
  • Voice only
  • FDMA (frequency division multiple access)
  • Voice
  • Low Data Rate (9.6-19.2 kbps)
  • TDMA, CDMA, GSM
  • 2.5G 100kpbs
  • Voice
  • High Speed Data (2-4 Mbps)
  • W-CDMA, 1xRTT, GPRS, Edge, IMT2000
wireless internet access
Wireless Internet Access
  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
    • Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken
    • Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security
  • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
    • Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency, e.g.. Short message service (SMS)
2 5g wireless systems
2.5G Wireless Systems
  • An intermediate step in employing full packet-switching 3G systems
  • Use circuit switching for voice and packet switching for data; designed to operate in 2G network spectrum
  • GPRS (general Packet Radio Services)—the 2.5G implementation of Internet protocol packet switching on European GSM network.
the 3g wireless systems
The 3G Wireless Systems
  • Packet-switching network technology for wireless transmission of voice, data, images, audio, and video. high speed Internet access, email, streaming audio and video
    • EDGE (AT&T, Nokia)
    • Cdma2000 (Sprint PCS)
    • W-CDMA (NTT DoCoMo)
  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
    • Establishes guidelines for 3G
packet switching
Packet Switching
  • Circuit-switching networks need to reserve resources (buffers and bandwidth) for the entire duration of the communication session.
  • Packet switching offers better sharing of bandwidth; simpler, more efficient, and less costly to implement. But not suitable for real-time services because of its variable and unpredictable delays.
3g wireless systems
3G Wireless Systems
  • High data rates, 2-5 Mbps for indoor use, 384 kbps for pedestrians, and 144 kbps for vehicles
  • Packet-switched networks, users will be always connected
  • Voice and data network will be dynamically allocated
  • Enhanced roaming
  • Common billing and have user profiles
  • Use geographic position of the users via mobile terminals and networks
  • Suitable for transmission of multimedia and mobile services
m commerce introduction
M-Commerce: Introduction
  • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business, or mobile business
  • Current applications
    • Conduct online transactions
    • Make purchases
    • Trade stocks
    • Send e-mail
  • Future applications
    • A wireless office, where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables
obstacles for m business adoption
Obstacles for m-Business Adoption
  • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive
  • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network
  • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers
  • Multiple standards
content
Content
  • Compare to traditional web
    • Smaller screens
    • Low bandwidth
    • Monochrome vs. Color
    • Character vs. Bit modes
    • Font control
    • Limited local memory
    • Limited data entry capabilities
    • Mini browser features
  • Phones vs. PDAs vs. new form factors
m business
m-Business
  • m-Business
    • e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access
    • B2C marketplace
      • Increased conveniences for consumers
      • Frequent, small transactions
      • Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements
    • B2B marketplace
      • Salespeople can access product databases and place orders
      • Address customer needs immediately
      • Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely
wireless web technology
Wireless Web Technology
  • Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices
    • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
    • Palm OS --Web clipping
    • Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer
pda and web clipping
PDA and Web Clipping
  • Web clipping
    • Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics
  • Proxy server
    • Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server
    • Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP
    • Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data
      • The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device
      • If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server
  • Query Application Builder (QAB)
    • Web designers build (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers
slide19
WAP
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
    • Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc.
    • A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet
    • Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide
    • Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices
    • Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints
slide20
WML
  • Wireless Markup Language (WML)
    • The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML
    • Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages
    • WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device
    • WML works with the WAP to deliver the content
    • Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices
  • Microbrowsers
    • Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements
    • Access the Web via the wireless Internet
wap and wml
WAP and WML
  • How wireless Internet works:
    • A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server
    • Server responds by sending the requested WML document
    • The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone
  • Deck

A WML document

  • Card
    • Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing
software appliances for wireless devices
Software Appliances for Wireless Devices
  • No widely accepted standard for wireless development
  • Developers are often required to develop multiple applications
  • Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer
    • Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC
    • Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices
wireless local area networks
Wireless Local Area Networks
  • Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office or without having to install a new a new network connection in each location
  • Technologies
    • Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs): Used to network devices at a distance
    • Laser technology
    • Infrared technology
    • Bluetooth
    • Wi-Fi 802.11x
location tracking
Location Tracking
  • Location tracking
    • Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars
    • Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time
    • Can also be used for targeted marketing
location based services
Location-based Services
  • 911 locator
    • Government mandate
    • Triangulate position from 3 towers
  • Advertising
    • Impulse buying, walking past a store
    • Discounts
  • Mapping and Directions
  • Weather forecasts
global positioning system gps
Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Developed by the United States Department of Defense
  • Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location
  • Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas
  • Triangulation
    • Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation
the carriers rule
The Carriers Rule!
  • Rollout of wireless Internet services depends on the carriers
    • They own the bandwidth licenses
    • Competing standards, esp. in the US
    • Investment in infrastructure
    • Global and nationwide coverage
    • Auctions for new bandwidth
    • Competition
    • Cooperation
  • Contrast the situations in Europe, Japan and the US.
future of wireless internet
Future of Wireless Internet
  • Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices
  • Improving technology
  • Increasing number of devices made wireless
  • Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology
opportunities
Opportunities

Short term (1-2 Yrs.)

Short / Med. term (1-3Yrs.)

Med. / Long term (3-5Yrs.)

Remote diagnostics

Entertainment-on-demand: Games, Audio & Video

Internet enabled information, education &

entertainment

Emergency Services

Roadside Assistance

Navigation related info

Travel related information

Interactive navigation info

E-mail and data / msgs

Information: news, sports, finance

Remote access : corporate Networks / LANs / Intranet / Internet

Safety

Productivity

Fun