Memory
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Memory. The stories we tell. Cognitive Perspective. Language Intelligence Thinking and Reasoning Memory. Types of Memories. Explicit/Declarative semantic: facts, knowledge episodic: autobiographical events Implicit procedural: the ‘how tos’.

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Memory l.jpg

Memory

The stories we tell...


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Cognitive Perspective

  • Language

  • Intelligence

  • Thinking and Reasoning

  • Memory


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Types of Memories

  • Explicit/Declarative

    • semantic: facts, knowledge

    • episodic: autobiographical events

  • Implicit

    • procedural: the ‘how tos’



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Memory Construction

  • Recall is not an exact replica of original events

  • Recall is a construction built and rebuilt from various sources

  • We often fit memories into existing beliefs

  • Schemas provide a framework for new information


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BED

CLOCK

DREAM

NIGHT

TURN

MATTRESS

SNOOZE

NOD

TIRED

NIGHT

BLANKET

ARTICHOKE

INSOMNIA

REST

TOSS

NIGHT

ALARM

NAP

SNORE

PILLOW

Word List


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Enhancing Remembering

  • Serial Position Effect:

    • primacy

    • recency

  • Repetition

  • Distinctiveness

  • Organization

  • Mnemonics


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Enhancing Remembering

  • Mass vs. Spaced Practice

  • Automatic vs. Effortful Processing



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Encoding Specificity

  • Context dependence: Scuba Diver study


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Encoding Specificity

  • State dependence

    • arousal level, altered states of consciousness

  • Mood congruence

    • effects of depression on memory and perception


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Flashbulb Memories

  • ‘Video-like’ memory, vivid and detailed

  • Usually highly emotional, shocking

  • Example: September 11

  • How accurate are they?


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Flashbulb Memories

  • Neisser and Harsch (1992) Challenger disaster

  • 1 day later vs. 3 years later


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Eyewitness Testimony

  • Eyewitness testimony is influential in court

  • Eyewitness confidence is related to juror conviction

  • How accurate is eyewitness’ memory for an event?


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Leading Questions

  • Loftus and Palmer (1974) Subjects shown video of an accident between two cars

  • How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?


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Results

‘hit’ = 34.0 mph

‘contacted’ = 31.8 mph

‘bumped’ = 38.1 mph

‘collided’ = 39.3 mph

‘smashed’ = 40.8 mph


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The Misinformation Effect

  • Witness event

  • Receive incorrect post-event information

  • Asked to recall event, recall incorrect information


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The Misinformation Effect

  • Loftus, Miller and Burns (1978)

  • Slideshow depicting car accident

  • Car stopped at stop sign

  • Asked “What was the color of the car stopped at the yield sign?”


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The Misinformation Effect

  • Forced-Choice Recognition Test:

    Which slide did you see?


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Other Eyewitness Factors

  • Race Identification

  • Witness Expectations/Perceptions

  • Duration of Event

  • Emotional Arousal

  • Transference

    • mug shots and lineups


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