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Introduction To Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology of Education. Created by Jeff Strauss MA Educational Foundations. Branches of Study. Philosophical Theories of Human Existence: Pre-Socratic, Medieval, Modern, 19 th and 20 th Century
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Created by Jeff Strauss
MA Educational Foundations
From the earliest beginnings of recorded history it has involved discussions and debates not just about truth, but what are our methods of inquiry into truth. So one of the differences between philosophy and straightforward scientific inquiry is that in philosophy the issue isn’t merely about what the truth is, but how we can know what the truth is. A physicist and biologistknow things, but the philosopher asks, How do they know?
It is for that reason that philosophy is often described as a ‘second-order’ activity: thinking about thinking, knowing about knowing.
“Everything is made of water”
There is an underlying reality beyond appearances that is radically different from things as they appear to us through our senses
The ancient Greeks as a starting point for western civilizations philosophical traditions
Los Tres Amigos
In the third century the philosophical traditions from Thales to Aurelius ground to a screeching halt. To the enlightened citizens at the height of the Roman Empire, with the Hellenic philosophical genius behind them and the emerging political, social and cultural advances before them, it must have seemed as if some great, cosmic awakening was about to happen, as if the next level of enlightenment within human consciousness was just around the corner. What they got instead was the Dark Ages: the burning of books, the closing of the philosophy schools, the collapse of the Roman Empire.
- Daniel Kolack “From the Pre-Socratic to the Present”
The Age of Modern Philosophy
In philosophy, where the term is extensively used, it applies to movements that include post-structuralism, deconstruction, multiculturalism, gender studies and literary theory, sometimes called simply "theory". It emerged beginning in the 1950's as a critique of doctrines such as positivism and emphasizes the importance of power relationships, personalization and discourse in the "construction" of truth and world views.