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1. This is wrong. This book says that vertebrates use Hb & arthropods use hemocyanin (Cu-based) as their respiratory pigment. . 2. Hmm… Zee insect obviouzly ‘as trrouble sustaining aerrobic rezpiracion in zee wadairr. 3. This insect must be an endotherm with a high BMR & high O 2 demand.
1. This is wrong. This book says that vertebrates use Hb & arthropods use hemocyanin (Cu-based) as their respiratory pigment.
2. Hmm… Zee insect obviouzly ‘as trrouble sustaining aerrobic rezpiracion in zee wadairr.
3. This insect must be an endotherm with a high BMR & high O2 demand.
4. I think maybe the insect stores O2 in this way.
The aquatic air-breathing insect Notonecta has tracheal cells (cells lining the respiratory passages) that contain hemoglobin. What advantage would this metallo-protein serve in a diving, air-breathing insect?
Describe the 4 functional processes involved in most animal respiration.
Compare to gas exchange in plants.
Identify each type of respiratory adaptation, and relate to lifestyle.
Compare (if applicable) ventilation, gas exchange at the respiratory organ, transport of gases, and gas exchange at the tissues.
Air vs. Water:
If fish gills are so efficient at gas exchange, why can’t most fish survive out of water?
In order to have bulk flow of water over the respiratory surface, what must be created?
Discuss the negative pressure component in gill ventilation.
Discuss the positive pressure component of gill ventilation.
Nearly 80% of the O2 is removed from the water as it passes over the gills.
Is this more or less efficient than gas exchange at the lungs? Why ?
Draw a similar picture showing blood flow and water flow in the
same direction. How would oxygen diffusion change?
(May serve as storage reserve)
Each cell has a nearly direct means
of gas exchange via the tracheal system (2-4 spiracles on the thorax, 6-8 on abdomen).
What is the advantage of such a
system for a small, fast animal?
Do insects have respiratory pigments in their hemolymph? Significance?
The abdomen in large, active insects like grasshoppers, is used like a bellows to force air out of tracheae with contraction of skeletal muscles.
What happens when these muscles relax?
The experiment illustrated (first performed by the insect physiologist Gottfried Fraenkel) shows that there is a one-way flow of air through the grasshopper. The liquid seals at either end of the tubing move to the right as air enters the first four pairs of spiracles in the thorax and is discharged through the last six pairs in the abdomen.
How is this different from ventilation in mammals? How does it compare to ventilation in birds? Explain.
Do amphibians have completely separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems?
What other organ(s) may be used in respiration?
Compare the size and complexity of the respiratory system in birds and amphibians (previous slide), and explain any differences.
Compare the direction of airflow in birds and mammals. What does this imply regarding the pressure gradients at the transport epithelium?
How do the serous membranes that cover the surfaces of the lungs and line the thoracic cavity facilitate breathing?
Would you expect insects (tracheal system) to have a respiratory pigment in their hemolymph? Explain.
Hemoglobin is the only respiratory pigment in vertebrates, but it is a common respiratory pigment among invertebrates as well.
Hemocyanin, a blue copper-containing protein, carries oxygen in crustaceans and most mollusks, within hemolymph. Describe the respiratory organs in these animals.
Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the
chemical reaction in both directions. Explain how this is possible…
What “drives” the diffusion of
bicarbonate out of RBCs?
Is there a “potential” problem
associated with the loss of HCO3- ?
(pun intended )