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Federalism PowerPoint Presentation

Federalism

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Federalism

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  1. 3 Federalism

  2. Video: The Big Picture 3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch03_Federalism_Seg1_v1.html

  3. 3 Learning Objectives Define federalism and contrast it with alternative ways of organizing a nation. 3.1 3.1 Outline the constitutional basis for the division of power between national and state governments, the establishment of national supremacy, and states’ obligations to each other. 3.2 3.2

  4. 3 Learning Objectives Characterize the shift from dual to cooperative federalism, the role of fiscal federalism in intergovernmental relations today, and diversity in policies among the states. 3.3 Explain the consequences of federalism for diversity in public polices among the states. 3.4

  5. 3 Learning Objectives Assess the impact of federalism on democratic government and the scope of government. 3.5

  6. Video: The Basics 3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_Federalism_v2.html

  7. 3.1 Defining Federalism • What is federalism? • Unitary system • Power given to central government • Confederation • Weak national government and power given to states • Intergovernmental relations • The dealings of federal and state governments with one another in a federal system

  8. 3.1 Authority relations in three systems of government

  9. 3.1 3.1Which organizing system does the government in the United States use? • Confederate • Unitary • Federal • Intergovernmental

  10. 3.1 3.1Which organizing system does the government in the United States use? • Confederate • Unitary • Federal • Intergovernmental

  11. 3.2 Constitutional Basis of Federalism – The Only Practical Choice • Division of Power • National Supremacy • States’ Obligations to Each Other

  12. 3.2 Division of Power • States retained many powers • Organize local governments and elections • Ratify Constitutional amendments • Equal representation in Senate

  13. 3.2 Some Powers Denied States by the Constitution

  14. 3.2 Division of Power • Federal obligations to states • Cannot divide states • Cannot tax interstate exports • Protect states against invasion • Overlapping responsibilities

  15. 3.2 National Supremacy • Which level should do what? • Debates over areas of policy responsibility • Supremacy clause • Civil War • The Struggle for Racial Equality • Tenth Amendment • Eleventh Amendment

  16. 3.2 Wallace and segregation

  17. 3.2 National Supremacy • Implied Powers • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) • Enumerated powers • Elastic clause

  18. 3.2 Supremacy Clause and Immigration

  19. 3.2 National Supremacy • Commerce power • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) • Promote economic development • Regulate economic activity • Expansion then retraction

  20. 3.2 States’ Obligations to Each Other • Full faith and credit • Defense of Marriage Act (1996) • Section 2 • Obergefell v Hodges makes it obsolete

  21. 3.2 States’ Obligations to Each Other • Extradition • Privileges and immunities • 14th Amendment • Designed to prevent discrimination by states against visitors or new residents coming from other states.

  22. 3.2 3.2Which clause of the Constitution requires states to honor contracts signed in other states? • Privileges and immunities • Full faith and credit • Necessary and proper • Commerce

  23. 3.2 3.2Which clause of the Constitution requires states to honor contracts signed in other states? • Privileges and immunities • Full faith and credit • Necessary and proper • Commerce

  24. Explore the Simulation: You Are a Federal Judge 3.2 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media_1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=3

  25. Video: In Context 3.2 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Federalism_v2.html

  26. Intergovernmental Relations 3.3 • From Dual to Cooperative Federalism • Devolution? • Fiscal Federalism

  27. 3.3 From Dual to Cooperative Federalism • Dual federalism • Separate spheres of authority • Layer cake • Interpret federal power narrowly • Cooperative federalism • Shared costs • Marble cake • Federal guidelines • Shared administration

  28. 3.3 Interstate highways

  29. 3.3 From Dual to Cooperative Federalism • Cooperative federalism in action • Schools • Highways and State Alcohol laws

  30. 3.3 Devolution? • Party divide on federalism • Democrats favor national government • Republicans favor states • Devolution since Reagan • Loosening federal regulations • 1994 Congress • Harnessing federal government power

  31. 3.3 Fiscal Federalism • The Grant System • Categorical grants • Specific purpose • Crossover sanctions • Using federal $$$ in one program to influence state and local policy in another • Highway funds for raising drinking age • Crosscutting requirements • A condition of federal grant is extended to all activities supported by federal funds • University losing all federal funds for discriminating in athletic programs • Project grants • Formula grants • Block grants • 1994 Congress • Scramble for federal dollars • Mandate blues

  32. 3.3 Fiscal Federalism • The Grant System • Categorical grants • Specific purpose • Crossover sanctions • Crosscutting requirements • Project grants • Formula grants • Block grants • 1994 Congress • Scramble for federal dollars • Federal $$ spread more evenly than going to needy as originally intended • Mandate blues

  33. 3.3 FIGURE 3.1: Fiscal federalism: Federal grants to state and local governments

  34. 3.3 No Child Left Behind Act

  35. 3.3 3.3Which of the following gives states more discretion in using federal funds? • Categorical grant • Formula grant • Block grant • Mandate

  36. 3.3 3.3Which of the following gives states more discretion in using federal funds? • Categorical grant • Formula grant • Block grant • Mandate

  37. Explore Federalism: Which States Win or Lose in the Federal Aid Game? 3.3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_edwards_mpslgia_16/pex/pex3.html

  38. 3.4 Diversity in Policy • Diversity in public opinion reflected • Minimum wage above federal government • Policy innovation facilitated • Diversity has its downside • Different levels of services provided because states have different amounts of resources • Education • Welfare

  39. 3.4 3.4Which of the following is a result of federalism? • Diversity of policies in states • States can be policy innovators • States can spend less on education • All of the above

  40. 3.4 3.4Which of the following is a result of federalism? • Diversity of policies in states • States can be policy innovators • States can spend less on education • All of the above

  41. Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist 3.4 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_Federalism_v2.html

  42. 3.5 Understanding Federalism • Federalism and Democracy • Federalism and the Scope of the National Government

  43. 3.5 FIGURE 3.2: State and local spending on public education

  44. 3.5 Federalism and Democracy • Contributions to democracy • Decentralizes politics • Disputes resolved at lower levels of govt. • Majorities can be heard at state level • More opportunities for participation • Losing elections less painful • Detriments to democracy • Electoral College • Thwarting national majorities

  45. 3.5 Number of governments in America

  46. 3.5 Federalism and the Scope of the National Government • Why national government grew • Economic intervention • Industrialization • Quotas • Subsidies • Preventing monopolies • Occupational health and safety • Urbanization • Housing • Social welfare

  47. 3.5 FIGURE 3.3: Fiscal Federalism: The size of the public sector

  48. 3.5 3.5Federalism has contributed to democracy in all of the following ways except: • The Electoral College • More opportunities for participation • Disputes resolved at lower levels • More points of access

  49. 3.5 3.5Federalism has contributed to democracy in all of the following ways except: • The Electoral College • More opportunities for participation • Disputes resolved at lower levels • More points of access