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Fats: Fact and Fiction. Gretchen Gruender MS, RD, CD Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Pouring over the fats. Dietary fat and cancer Role of fats in our body Types of fat Sources of fat in food Cooking with fat. Cancer Survivors. Increased risk for lingering effects:

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Fats: Fact and Fiction

Gretchen Gruender MS, RD, CD

Seattle Cancer Care Alliance


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Pouring over the fats

  • Dietary fat and cancer

  • Role of fats in our body

  • Types of fat

  • Sources of fat in food

  • Cooking with fat


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Cancer Survivors

Increased risk for lingering effects:

  • Body composition changes

    • Weight gain, weight loss, changes in body composition

  • Accelerated bone loss / Osteoporosis

  • Diabetes

  • Congestive heart failure

  • Changes in bowel function

  • Taste and smell changes

  • Hot flashes

  • Neuropathies

  • Hyperlipidemia

    Where can the quantity and quality of fat make a difference?


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Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS): Study Results

Does a low fat diet prevent breast cancer (BC) recurrence?

  • 2437 women with early stage resected BC

  • 48 to 79 years old

  • Randomized to one of two groups:

    • Low fat diet (~15% total calories) - ~33 gm total fat

      • 8 individual counseling sessions with Registered Dietitian (RD), then every 3 month contact with RD, monthly and quarterly group classes

    • Control – ~51 gm total fat

      • 1 individual counseling session, then every 3 month contact with RD

  • Median follow-up of 5 years

    Chlebowski, J Nat’l Cancer Inst 98, 2006


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Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS): Study Results

24% reduction in breast cancer recurrence in the low fat diet group compared to the control group


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Nutrition and Lifestyle Studies Results

Prostate cancer intensive nutrition & lifestyle change study:

  • almost vegan diet

    • very low meat intake

    • high fruit and vegetable intake

  • reduced fat

  • lifestyle interventions: yoga, exercise, meditation and support groups

    After one year, participants had no need for conventional therapies

    • lower PSA’s

    • greater quality of life

    • less in vitro prostate cancer cell growth

      Dean Ornish, 2005


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FAT Results

is a nutrient

is a source of energy

adds taste and texture to foods

makes us feel full longer

helps absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

Regulates immune function, inflammation and cell membrane integrity

Role of Fat in our Body


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Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) Results

Monounsaturated fats (MUFA)

Saturated fats

Trans fats

Types of Fat



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Types of Fat Results

Polyunsaturated fats

  • Essential because our bodies need but cannot make

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids: 2 types

    • Omega-6: linoleic acid (LA)

      • AA (Arachadonic acid)- eicosanoids

    • Omega-3: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)

      • DHA/EPA (docosapentaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid)


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Essential Fatty Acids Results

The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 is more important than the absolute amount of omega-3.

Was 1:1 or 2:1 Now 15:1 or 20:1


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Essential Fatty Acids Results

Role of omega-3 fatty acids in chronic disease

  • Cancer

  • Cardiovascular disease

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Diabetes

  • More…


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Fats in Food Results

Omega-3

  • ALA: flaxseed oils, walnuts, hemp and chia seeds, legumes, green leafy vegetables, canola, soybean,black current seed oil, algae

  • EPA and DHA: oily cold-water fish such as herring, tuna, sardines, anchovies and salmon, grass-fed meats/poultry and eggs

  • ALA has to be converted in our bodies to EPA/DHA


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Fats in Food Results

Conversion of ALA to DHA and EPA is inefficient and is reduced with:

  • High intake of omega 6 fatty acids

  • Alcohol

  • Trans fat

    It is estimated that only 2-5% of ALA is converted to EPA/DHA.


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Fats in Food Results

Omega-6

  • LA: corn, soy, sunflower and safflower oils, processed foods and grains

  • AA: beef, pork and poultry


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Fats in Food Results

Monounsaturated Fats

Examples:

Olive oil

canola oil

Peanuts

Almonds

Cashews

Hazelnuts

pecans


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Fats in Food Results

Saturated Fats

Examples: butter, cakes and pastries, chocolate bars, coconut, coffee creamer, meat, poultry, dairy products, coconut oil


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Trans Fats Results

Made by hydrogenating vegetable oils

More dangerous than saturated fats in the body

Increases inflammation

Inhibits the conversion of ALA to DHA

Makes membranes more rigid

Interferes with intercellular communication

Increases LDL cholesterol

Increases insulin resistance

Fats in Food


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Fats in Food Results

Trans Fats

  • Most found in processed foods

    • French fries, potato chips, donuts, cookies, crackers, cereals, shortening, muffins, pizza crusts, buns, cakes, fish sticks

      Read labels!!!!!

      A product can say trans-fat free and still have hydrogenated oils.


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Fats in Food Results

What’s next?

  • Fully hydrogenated fat

  • Inter-esterified fats

  • Genetically modified seed oils

  • Tropical oils

  • Partially hydrogenated with low Trans Fats


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How do we damage fats? Results

Refine, oxidize, heat

Refining grains, nuts and seed oils

  • Creates a colorless, flavorless oil

  • Destroys/removes micronutrients

  • >180 degrees C – fatty acids are oxidized

  • >240 degrees C – trans fat is formed


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Preparation of oils Results

How are oils extracted from the nut/seed?

  • Cold pressing: mechanical process - maximum temperature of 172 degrees

  • Heat pressing: mechanical process – temperatures between 208-280 degrees. Oil from this method will be treated with a solvent, and may go through degumming, refining, neutralizing, bleaching, hydrogenating, or deodorizing.


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If possible, choose oils that have not been refined, expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

Best options: unrefined and/or cold pressed

Avoid exposing oils to heat, light and air

Cooking with Fats


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Cooking with Fats expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

  • Do not exceed the smoke point of an oil

  • PUFA’s are not tolerant of high temperatures

  • Better choices for cooking at high heat include peanut, sunflower and canola oil

  • Avoid cooking with cold pressed oils and reserve for vinaigrettes


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Cooking with Fats expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

  • Purchase nuts and seeds raw and in a shell if possible

  • Store in a cool, dark place

    Best choices for fish:

    • Wild salmon, cod, sardines, small tuna or halibut


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How much is enough? expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

20 – 35% of total Calories from fat

2000-Calorie diet

= 44 – 78 grams of fat

or 11 – 19 ½ teaspoons

1500-Calorie diet

= 33 – 58 grams of fat

or 8 ¼ – 14 ½ teaspoons


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Ways to decrease your overall fat intake: expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

  • Use higher fat foods as “condiments”

    • Grate cheese on vegetables

    • Add a handful of granola to fruit

    • Add a small handful of nuts to a salad

  • Most fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes have very small amounts of fat – enjoy an abundance of these foods.

  • Decrease the amount of meat that you eat

  • Take the skin off chicken and turkey


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Ways to decrease your overall fat intake: expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

continued…

  • Before sautéing, warm your pan slightly before adding vegetable oil – the oil will disperse in the pan quicker if it is warm which may result in using less oil

  • Minimize eating processed foods such as crackers, cakes and microwavable meals as they are generally higher in fat than whole foods.

  • Eat real cheese but eat it in small amounts, not at every meal, not daily


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Ways to decrease your overall fat intake: expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

continued…

  • Use low fat or nonfat dairy, or eat smaller amounts of whole fat dairy

  • If you buy large quantities of nuts or vegetables oils (like olive oil), put a small amount in a separate container to use daily. Studies show we serve 22% more volume of food when we dispense food from a larger container.

  • Practice mindful eating – don’t buy a bid bag of nuts and eat them in the car while you are driving to work, talking on the phone, etc.


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Cooking with Fats expeller pressed or extracted with solvents

Recipe: Triple A Salad

Smell and Taste

Questions?


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