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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century Borders set by European Powers - somewhat arbitrary - little connection to ethnic and linguistic realities - accepted during decolonization - attitude during Cold War - attitude of new independent states - OAU - affirmed boundaries - why?

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ch 35 the end of a global century

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century

Borders set by European Powers

- somewhat arbitrary

- little connection to ethnic and linguistic realities

- accepted during decolonization

- attitude during Cold War

- attitude of new independent states

- OAU

- affirmed boundaries

- why?

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 2000

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Modern State System

- the sovereign nation-state

- wielding absolute authority within recognized borders

Helped reduce violence between states

Did not help disputes within states – esp. w/oppressed minority groups

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 20003

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

U.S. and Europe

- tried to establish Western-style democracy and secularism as formula for peace and tolerance

- problem?

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 20004

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Many internal conflicts

ex. Sri Lanka –

- Hindu minority vs. Singalese speaking Buddhists

ex. Hutu vs. Tutsi

others: Indonesia, Eritrea/Ethiopia, India

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Yugoslavia – post Eastern bloc

- Slovenia, Croatia independence

- Bosnia and Herzegovina

- Kosovo

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Yugoslavia – post Eastern bloc

- Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992

- Muslim majority, Serbians, Croatian Catholics

Serbs vs. Muslims = Ethnic Cleansing

- Help for the Muslims?

- 1995 – U.S. helps broker peace

- Why so long?

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 20007

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Yugoslavia – post Eastern bloc

- Kosovo

- Serbs vs. Kosovars (Albanian speaking Muslims)

- NATO attack

- results

- what next? Sudan? Turkey?

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- post WWII

- at first industrialized economies grew

- profits reinvested

- Korean War in 1950s

- American stimulus to Japanese economy

- Vietnam in 1960s

- American stimulus to Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- After 1974

- oil producing companies become wealthy

- Major debt issues

- Mexico, Brazil

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200010

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- Collapse of the Soviet Union

- newly independent republics needed help

- Southeast Asia boomed

- rapid growth for Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200011

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- Problem of failing nations?

-Whose responsibility?

- U.S. helping Mexico

- World Bank, International Monetary Fund

- conditional assistance

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- Economic sanctions

- attempt to change policies

- ex. South Africa

- others?

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Global Economy

- World Trade Organization

- reduce trade barriers

- opposition

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000

Sept. 11 and Terrorism

- Terrorism ideology

- provoke harsh reprisals or demonstrate gov. incompetence so people would look to terrorists for leadership

- role of television

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200015

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Sept. 11, 2001

- Bin Laden

- anger towards U.S. (1st Gulf War)

U.S. response vs. Afghanistan Taliban

Bin Laden

- jihad vs. U.S., Israel and any other non-Muslim enemy

U.S. foreign policy

- criticism

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Issue of Nuclear Non-proliferation

- India / Pakistan

- North Korea, Iraq

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Human Rights

- tricky – Pres. Carter / Shah of Iran

U.N. Declaration of Human Rights in 1948

- roots in European and US history

- major ideas

- how universal?

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Nongovernmenal Organizations (NGOs)

- focus on agreed upon violations

Western Criticism vs. Reverse Criticism

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200019

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Women’s Rights

- 1960s

- revived energy – esp. in US

- focus:

- equal access to educ. and jobs

- quality of life:

- ending of sexual exploitation etc.

- at same time:

- sexuality more prominent in society

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200020

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Western vs. Non-Western World

1970s International Conferences

Overall improvement toward gender equality

- education, employment, political participation, control of

fertility

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture

- cultural imperialism or diversity of voices?

Critics

- US exportations of movies, TV

- lifestyle

- products, advertising

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Movies

- US films vs. artistic films

- Hollywood, Bolleywood

TV around the world

- US programming vs. State-run

Satellite TV

- CNN, MTV etc.

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Computers

- then digital television etc.

- Internet in 1980s

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

High Culture vs. Popular Culture

- Pablo Picasso borrowing from other cultures

Music

- phonograph in 1878 – Thomas Edison

- jazz – 1920s – 1950s

- rock ‘n’ roll – 1950s

- Beatles – 1960s

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200025

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Worldwide consumer culture / Globalization

- U.S.

- Levis, Coca-cola etc.

- Japan

- Sony, Sanyo etc.

- European

- Nestle, Mercedes etc.

Critics of Globalization

- destroy local crafts, businesses etc.

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Globalization

- “brain drain”

- English as a global second language

ch 35 the end of a global century 1991 200027

Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Architecture

- International Style – 1920s on

- Postmodernism

- abandoning the rigid rules

- also seen in dance, music, literature, and cultural theory

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Ch. 35 - The End of a Global Century1991-2000+

Global Culture:

Western vs. Japanese view

- individual initiative vs. fitting into a group

- Japanese success

Industrialization vs. Information technology in 21st century

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