Bilingualism. Bi lingual ism. suffix that describes an action or process. “ articulated with the tongue ” . “two” . Bloomfield, 1933: “Bilingualism is the native-like control of two languages”
suffix that describes an action or process
“articulated with the tongue”
Bloomfield, 1933: “Bilingualism is the native-like control of two languages”
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Numerical strength: Large minority groups often stand a better chance of maintaining their language, with more people to mobilize it.
Social class: the people who speak a language also play an important role its survival rather than the number of people that speak it.
Ties with the homeland/native language: Refugees may reject their first language owing to its connections with the turmoil they left behind.
Exogamous marriage: In Wales, due to an out-migration of Welsh speakers and an influx of English speakers, the number of exogamous marriages (in which English almost always dominates) now equals those in which both partners are Welsh (data collected 1981).
Attitudes of the majority towards the minority: “If speakers of the minority language manage to find an ecological niche in the majority community, which is conducive to language maintenance, they may have a better chance of survival.” (Romaine, 1989).
The relationship between dialect and standard: With regards to education, “when the extent of the difference between the variety spoken at home and the school standard is substantial, children may experience considerable difficulties.” (ibid).
Four factors that may affect the choice of language;
-"extendre" instead of "estendre" –also "extens" and "extensió"– (extend)
-"extranger" and "extrany" instead of "estranger" and "estrany" (foreigner/ foreign)
Changes in verbal conjugation:
El tercer dia es el pitjor. El primer està bé, perquè ets màrtir. El segon, aguantes perque ho vas fer el primer. Però, el tercer, et dius; [Cast.] “¡¡No puedo más!! ¡¡Me da igual!!”
Main language in the cities (16’7 %)
- Studies: People with studies: Galicia, as main language (19’1 %)
Peoble without studies: Galicia as a main language (92’6%)
- Jobs: Unskilled worker: Galicia, as main language (96’1 %)
Skilled worker: Galicia, as main language (14’2 %)
3. 1969- 1984 (Ages: 25- 40 years old)
BILINGUISM: in villages
MONOLINGUALISM: in cities
PROCESS OF ‘DESGALEIZACIÓN’
REVERSE PROCESS OF DIGLOSIA
a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly codified (often grammatically more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any section of the community for ordinary conversation (1959)
NB. Polyglossia = when more than two varieties are involved
includes speech communities in which the high and low varieties are not necessarily close related varieties
Two or more varieties are mother tongues, each of different segments of the population
Paraguay – Spanish (H), Guarani (L)-both are mother tongues for different groups
The fact that the Galician language has been historically considered inferior, even among the majority of its speakers, has made the functional and realization process more challenging (2007:123)
Galician has traditionally been an oral language, with Castilian being used for written communication; as such it gains a level of prestige as it is the language used for official purposes.
Since becoming co-official in the region Galician went through a process of normalisation to create a standard version of the language.
What developed then were high and low versions of Galician, the ‘standard’ variety which was considered as high, and the local variants considered to be the low varieties.
Those people that move to the region that are not Catalan speaking find themselves in a diglossic situation:
No doubt many of them feel socially disadvantaged as they often come from a low socioeconomic background and live in poor housing areas, often in large, homogenous groups. For everyday purposes they probably don’t need to use Catalan, although of course, they may resent to feel in a linguistically inferior position (Hoffman, 1996:75)
My final example of diglossia in Spain is that of Aranés in the Valle de Arán.
And so we have a classic case of diglossia, with speakers of Aranés switching to Castilian depending on the circumstance such as official or administrative purposes.
El uso fuera del entorno familiar está dominado por el castellano, sobre todo en las generaciones más jóvenes. Por el contrario, en cuanto al conocimiento de la lengua, ha aumentado, por efecto de la escolarización en aranés. Lo que muestra que los medios puestos para la enseñanza de la lengua en la escuela han sido muy superiores a las medidas de política lingüística que iban dirigidas a fomentar su uso. Lo que muestra la necesidad urgente de una activación de las medidas destinadas a la promoción y uso de la lengua, que fuera llevada a cabo con la seriedad y el rigor necesarios. (Etxebarria, 2002:311)
(Salamanca: Edicións Xerais de Galicia, 2007)