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The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. 17 th Annual Risky Business Conference Des Moines, Iowa. Youth Transitioning from Foster Care to Independence April 23, 2002. The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999.

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17 th annual risky business conference des moines iowa

17th Annual Risky Business ConferenceDes Moines, Iowa

Youth Transitioning from Foster Care

to Independence

April 23, 2002

the foster care independence act of 1999

The Foster Care Independence Act of 1999

The Chafee Foster Care Independence Program:Strengthening the System’s Capacity to Help Young People Make Healthy Transitions to Adulthood

what does the fcia do
Increases funding from $70 to 140 million/year

Expands services to former foster youth 18-21 years old.

Gives states the option to provide Medicaid to 18-21 yo former foster youth

Changes the state planning and application process.

Increases youth asset limit to $10,000.

Increases access to CIP services for Native American tribes.

Strong focus on collaboration, youth involvement, permanency, relationships with caring adults, and achievement of positive outcomes for youth served in CIP programs.

What Does the FCIA Do?
slide5
What Opportunities does the New Chafee Foster Care Independence Program Offer to States, Communities, and Other Stakeholders?
  • Strengthen thecontinuum of services and supports available to older foster youth.
  • Fill current gaps in services, especially for youth who have left the system.
  • Increase the pool of stakeholders committed to supporting young people in making successful transitions.
slide6
What Opportunities does the New Chafee Foster Care Independence Program Offer to States, Communities, and Other Stakeholders?
  • Engage young people as partners in strengthening the service system.
  • Increase child welfare focus on supporting positive development and successful outcomes for all youth in foster care.
important planning issues
Important Planning Issues
  • Eligibility
  • Level of services to youth who have left care
  • Use of CIP funds for room & board - housing options
  • In-kind match
  • Medicaid
  • Identifying stakeholders
  • Developing 5-year plan
  • Identifying resources
implementing the plan
Implementing the Plan
  • Continuum, continuum, continuum!
  • Engage youth as partners; short term and long term.
  • Move away from classroom type instruction to learning by doing.
  • Identify housing options that allow for safe transitions.
  • Create & maintain partnerships.
some background
Some Background…
  • 2001 AFCARS - Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System
  • Estimated 1999 data regarding foster care and adoption in the U.S. - from 49 jurisdictions including Puerto Rico and D.C.
  • Available on-line at www.dhhs.gov
background cont d
Background, cont’d
  • 1999 estimates: 507,011 children, youth and young adults in foster care
  • Under 1 Yr4%23,396
  • 1 thru 5 Yrs25%143,268
  • 6 thru 10 Yrs26%150,574
  • 11 thru 15 Yrs28%164,134
  • 16 thru 18 Yrs16%90,293
  • 19 + Yrs2%9,335
where are they
Where are they?

Children, youth, and young adults in care are in a range of placements:

  • Pre-Adoptive Home4%20,969
  • Foster Family Home (Relative)26%140,817
  • Foster Family Home (Non-Rel)46%252,326
  • Group Home8%42,096
  • Institution10%52,501
  • Supervised Ind Living1% 4,597
  • Runaway1%7,038
  • Trial Home Visit3%14,307
background
Background
  • 263,762 [45%] should be considered as the gross eligible population for Chafee Services.
  • The 16+ group is almost 20%- close to 100,000 young people.
  • In 1998, states reported that 75,000 youth received IL services.
  • This estimate includes one-time services, such as conferences.
chafee program
Chafee Program
  • The legislation requires that the Secretary of HHS, in consultation with key stakeholders, develop a set of outcomes and measures to assess state performance; list of 34 outcomes generated which involved six discussion groups with key stakeholders. List then provided to members of the Standing Workgroup for feedback
  • 2000-2001: Development of the National Youth In Transition Information System (NYTIS)
  • Pilot of NYTIS
evaluation outcomes
Evaluation & Outcomes
  • Traditionally neglected area of work.
  • Challenges related to confidentiality, ability to contact youth, resources.
  • Need to focus on creative strategies for follow up.
  • Work with child welfare information systems and non-CIP caseworkers to ensure follow up after emancipation, not after completion of CIP services.
evaluation outcomes15
Evaluation & Outcomes
  • Don’t forget relationships; this qualitative result may be the most important thing you do!
  • Coordinate with other data collection efforts, e.g. TANF, Workforce Investment Act, School-to-Work.
nytis national youth in transition information system six outcomes focus
NYTIS - National Youth in Transition Information System - Six outcomes focus
  • Increased number of youth who have resources to meet their living expenses.
  • Increased number of youth who have a safe and stable place to live.
  • Increased number of youth who attain educational/voc goals
nytis national youth in transition information system six outcomes focus17
4. Increased number of youth who have positive personal relationships with adults in the community.

5. Increased number of youth who avoid involvement with high risk behaviors

6. Increased percentage of youth who can access needed phy and mental health services.

NYTIS - National Youth in Transition Information System - Six outcomes focus
plan for collection of data
Plan for collection of data
  • Current plans, not finalized
  • Collect outcome data at discharge for youth ages 14 and older
  • Collect outcome data annually for youth up to age 20 receiving IL services
  • Collect youth characteristics and services info at 6 mo. or yearly intervals
proposed outcomes measures
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 1:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Have

Resources to Meet Their Living Expenses

  • 1.1 What % of youth currently employed, full/part time?
  • 1.2 What % of youth held a job, apprenticeship, internship for at least 3 consecutive months during the past 12 months?
  • 1.3 What % of youth are currently relying on financial resources other than employment?
  • 1.4 What % of youth currently have a bank or credit account?
  • Indicates measures relevant to outcomes specified in the Chafee Independence Act of 1999
proposed outcomes measures20
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 2:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Have

A Safe and Stable Place to Live

  • 2.1 What % of youth have been homeless at some point since discharge?
  • 2.2 For youth who have been homeless, what was the duration of homelessness? (3 or fewer nights; more than 3 nights but less than 2 weeks; 2 weeks to a month, or more than one month)
proposed outcomes measures21
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 3:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Attain

Educational (Academic and Vocational) goals

  • 3.1 What % of youth have received a hs diploma, GED, AA/BA?
  • 3.2 What % of youth have received a vocational certificate or license?
  • 3.3 What % of youth are currently enrolled in, and attending hs, GED classes, or post hs vocational training or college?
proposed outcomes measures22
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 4:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Have a Positive Relationships with Adults in Their Lives

  • 4.1 What % of youth report that there is at least one adult in their lives they can go to for emotional support?
  • 4.2 What % of youth report that there is at least one adult in their lives they can go to for job/school advice or guidance?
proposed outcomes measures23
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 5:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Avoid High

Risk Behaviors

  • 5.1 What % of youth were referred or self-referred for alcohol or substance abuse assessment or counseling during the year?
  • 5.2 What % of youth were incarcerated or detained in a jail, prison, or juvenile justice or community detention facility at some time during the past year?
  • 5.3 What % of youth gave birth or fathered a child born during the past year?
  • 5.4 For youth who gave birth or fathered a child born during the past year, what % were married to the child’s other parent?
proposed outcomes measures24
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 6:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Are Able to

Access Needed Health Services

  • 6.1 What % of youth have medical insurance?
  • 6.2 What % of youth have insurance with mental health benefits?
  • 6.3 What % of youth have insurance with prescription drug benefits?
  • 6.4 What % of youth require on-going medication for maintenance of physical or mental health?
  • 6.5 For youth require on-going medication, what % are able to access resources to continue receiving their medications?
proposed outcomes measures25
Proposed Outcomes/Measures

Outcome 7:

Increase the Percent of Youth Who Have or Can Obtain Essential Documents

  • 7.1 What % of youth received, or were given information on how to obtain, their birth certificates, social security cards, medical records, and educational records at the time of discharge?
decisions about outcome assessments
Decisions About Outcome Assessments

Decisions to be made in two key areas:

  • Initial Outcome Assessment
  • Follow-up Outcome Assessments

Options:

  • Conduct initial assessment at point of discharge for all youth in foster care age 16 and older
  • Conduct the initial assessment on all youth in foster care near the time of their 17th birthday, for those youth who were in foster care for at least six months
  • Option 2 seems preferable
youth permanency
Youth Permanency
  • AFSA did not specifically speak to adolescent permanency
  • Chafee was seen as legislation to specifically address youth issues
  • Both missed opportunities to highlight Youth Permanency Issues
  • Independent Living is not the enemy of Youth Permanency
  • Although IL is a service not a permanency plan, all youth need an Independent Living Plans
  • IL and Youth Permanency need to be seen as concurrent plans for all adolescents
youth permanency con t
Youth Permanency con’t
  • All youth need permanent, connections with caring adults
  • Concurrently, as youth are being prepared for self-sufficiency, workers should also explore an array of permanency options; i.e., adoption, mentoring relationships, self-sufficiency, development of fictive kinship networks of mutual support and the like.
  • Youth permanency can be achieved in many ways, but adoption and the development of specific families for adolescents should also be investigated as permanency options
  • NRCFCPP is committed to focusing attention, resources, and time on exploring the continuum of youth permanency options and strategies
independent living issues
Independent Living Issues
  • Initial IL Assessments; Semi-Annual Assessments; Discharge Assessments; After-Care Assessments
  • IL Curriculums – Life Skills
  • Formal verses Informal Training
  • Tangible and Intangible Skills
  • Relationship Building
  • After Care Services
il program types
IL Program Types
  • Relative Care Homes
  • Family Foster Homes
  • Agency Operated Boarding Homes – AOBH
  • Community Based Group Homes
  • Group Residences
  • Supervised Independent Living Programs – SILPs
  • Transitional Living Programs – TLPs
  • Residential Treatment Centers
what are the outcomes we want for young people
What are the Outcomes We Want for Young People?
  • Success in youth programs, school, and work
  • Happiness; a sense of fulfillment
  • Strong relationships
  • Self-awareness
  • Health
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Are there others you would add?
how do youth workers support positive youth development
How do Youth Workers Support Positive Youth Development?
  • Provide a balance of challenge and support
  • Have strong self-awareness
  • Focus on youth’s strengths and capacity
  • Help youth build bridges to the community

Youth workers...

what are some of the systemic challenges to successful outcomes for youth in foster care
What are Some of the Systemic Challenges to Successful Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care?
  • The child welfare system can foster dependency in children and youth
  • System often focuses on problems and perceived deficits of clients (and families)
  • Youth are often worked with apart from family and community contexts
  • Youth workers can get caught up in aculture of control
what is a culture of control and why is it a problem
What is aCulture of Controland why is it a Problem?
  • Focus of problems is client issues apart from contexts and relationships
  • Quick fix mentality of more rules/more restrictions
  • More problems lead to personalization of issues by staff, which leads to more problems…..
what impact does a culture of control have on youth workers
What Impact Does a Culture of Control Have on Youth Workers?
  • Frustration toward program and youth
  • Increased attention to information/data/ points/rules, and less attention to youth
  • Burnout from over-personalization
  • High turnover rates
  • Inability to access youth potential
what impact does a culture of control have on young people
What Impact Does a Culture of Control Have on Young People?
  • Learned helplessness
  • Manipulation/ acting out
  • Increased ability to push staff buttons
  • Decreased ability to look at self instead of system
reflect on program challenges
Reflect on Program Challenges
  • What is the role of staff in creating and perpetuating barriers to program and youth success?
  • Does individual training and supervision address the need to understand the youth worker’s role in staff/client relationships?
  • Is equal time spent on strengthening youth worker’s self-awareness and personal growth skills, in comparison to client supervision and administration?
how do we promote systemic culture change for youth workers and youth programs
Organizations must:

Adopt a strengths-based, or positive youth development- focused mission

Promote accountability to the mission through supervision and evaluation

Managers/ supervisors must:

Provide training and supervision that support a youth development approach

Model a strengths-based approach to work with staff

Emphasize self-awareness and personal growth

How Do We Promote Systemic Culture Change for Youth Workers and Youth Programs?
how do we promote systemic culture change for youth workers and youth programs41
Program Design must:

Provide opportunity for youth participation

Hold youth and staff accountable for active youth participation

Avoid reliance on behavior management

Youth Workers must:

Invest time and effort in personal growth and self-awareness

Model a strengths-based approach in work with peers

Connect youth to the community and identified family

How Do We Promote Systemic Culture Change for Youth Workers and Youth Programs?
reflect on walking the positive youth development talk
Reflect on Walking the Positive Youth Development Talk
  • Addressing the culture of control is one way to increase youth workers’ ability to promote youth development.
  • Are there other systemic barriers to successful program and youth outcomes?
  • Are there characteristics of the system that make it easier to promote positive youth development? What are they?
  • What is one change you could make today to help you work with youth?
conclusions
Conclusions

“Young people may forget what you say and do, but they will never forget how you made them feel.”

Dr. Michael Carrera

nrcfcpp
NRCFCPP

Gerald P. Mallon, DSW, Director

The National Resource Center for Foster

Care and Permanency Planning

Hunter College School of Social Work

129 East 79th Street

New York, New York 10021

(212) 452-7043 – Phone

(212) 452-7051 - Fax

Mrengmal@aol.com

www.guthrie.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp