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Worlds Apart. Pre-Columbian America and Europe. I. Native America. Myths & Realities. A. Ice-age people. 1. Jose de Acosta 2. Pleistocene Epoch migration 60,000-15,000 BCE. B . Climatic diversification . Folsom technology Desert nomadism Forest efficiency. II. Regional Cultures.

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worlds apart

Worlds Apart

Pre-Columbian America and Europe

i native america
I. Native America

Myths & Realities

a ice age people
A. Ice-age people

1. Jose de Acosta

2. Pleistocene Epoch migration

60,000-15,000 BCE

b climatic diversification
B. Climatic diversification
  • Folsom technology
  • Desert nomadism
  • Forest efficiency
a agriculture
A. Agriculture

1. Complexity

- population growth

- gender roles: production & reproduction

slide7

2. Urbanization 3000 BCE – 1200 CE

- Anasazi Hopi, Zuni, Pueblos

- Mississippian “mound builders”

Ecological instabilityBottle Creek

b on the eve of colonization
B. On the eve of colonization
  • N. America- decentralization

Southwest - Pueblos, Pimas

Southeast - Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee

Northeast - Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca

slide10

In 1492…

- 2000 distinct cultures 60M ?

- North America 7-10M ?

…Western Hemisphere had been “prepared” for invasion.

european expansion and the columbian exchange

European Expansion and the Columbian Exchange

Colonization of the New and Old Worlds, 1500 - 1763

a science enthroned
A. Science enthroned
  • Reason and nature- Renaissance
  • Imperial Ecology

Prince Henry

b nation state
B. Nation-State

1. Reformation and war 1535-1648

Peace of Westphalia 1648

slide16

2. Absolute monarchy 1500s - 1700s

James I (England)

Louis XIV (France)

Elizabeth I (England)

Philip II (Spain)

Peter the Great (Russia)

Catherine the Great (Russia)

Frederick the Great (Prussia)

Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden)

slide17

3. Mercantilism

“zero-sum” game

joint stock companies

ii globalization

II. Globalization

The Consequences of Colonization

a atlantic economy
A. Atlantic Economy

1. Portuguese Empire

b the columbian exchange
B. The Columbian Exchange
  • Ecological Imperialism- success of Old World flora/fauna
  • The microbial exchange1492 7-10M1900 250K
slide22

3. Era of Western dominance (Modernity)

- safety valve

- commodities

- economics of addiction

tobacco, coffee, tea, sugar

c debating colonization
C. Debating colonization

1. Pro

Richard Hakluyt

Jean Baptiste Colbert

- spurred domestic growth

- strengthened national position

- empowered “absolute” monarchs

slide24

2. Con

Bartolomè de Las Casas 1590s

- Jesuit critique

Comte de Buffon 1770s

- frontier debased humanity, civilization

slide25
Conclusion…

1) Native societies prepared New World for invasion

2) Modern Europe driven to expand

3) Advantages of colonization outweighed moral or intellectual objections