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WHAT IS OROGENY? Processes of mtn building. Distinctive patterns of deposition eugeocline, miogeocline Deformation Folding and thrust-faulting Metamorphism Intrusions: batholiths, etc Volcanic Activity. TYPES OF MOUNTAINS. Volcanic: Shield and composite

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what is orogeny processes of mtn building
WHAT IS OROGENY?Processes of mtn building

Distinctive patterns of deposition

eugeocline, miogeocline

Deformation

Folding and thrust-faulting

Metamorphism

Intrusions: batholiths, etc

Volcanic Activity

types of mountains
TYPES OF MOUNTAINS
  • Volcanic: Shield and composite
  • Fault-block: normal faulting and tension
  • Folded: reverse faults and compression
  • Complex: mixture of most of the above
slide3

Mauna Loa in

Background

Kilaeua is

Behind Mauna

Loa

Mauna Kea

Shield volcano

Hot Spot

Basalt

slide4

Kilaeua

Newest ground in

The world

Asthenosphere coming

To the surface

slide5

Composite Volcano

Mt Rainier

Compressive forces

Subduction zones

Andesitic composition

slide6

Guagua Pichincha, Ecuador

Quito in foreground

Composite volcanoes explosive

slide7

Normal fault

Footwall moves

Up relative to

Hanging wall

FOOTWALL

HANGING WALL

Tension forces

slide8

Tilted fault-block range: Sierra Nevada from east,

Steep side of block fault; Ansel Adams photo

slide9

Tilted Fault-block

Sierra Nevada from west

Side, low angle

Yosemite valley the result

Of glaciation on low-angle

relief

slide10

Wasatch Range

From Salt Lake City

Typically fault-

Block system

slide12

Alternating normal faults lead to a characteristic pattern called a

Horst and Graben system. An area under tension will often have

Multiple mountain ranges as a result.

slide13

Basin and range province: tilted fault-block mountains in Nevada.

The results of a horst and graben system. Nevada is under tension

Because of rising magma which is unzipping the system, all the way

From Baja California

Sierra Nevada and Wasatch Ranges part of this system

slide14

REVERSE FAULTS: Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall

Result of compression: plates colliding

Two types: low-angle or thrust faults, and high-angle reverse faults

Individual layers can move 100’s of kilometers

Alps are a great example

slide15

Thrust faults main cause

Of folded mountains

slide19

ZAGROS MTS

PERSIAN GULF

Alternating

Anticlines and

Synclines

slide20

High-angle reverse faults

Forms “Sawtooth Mtns”

Flatirons classic example

Sawtooth effect result of

Differential erosion

slide21

SAWTOOTH RANGE,

IDAHO

Alice Lake

White Cloud peak

slide22

COMPLEX MOUNTAINS

Tend to have a little of

Everything: volcanoes,

Folds, thrust faults, normal

faults

ALPS

HIMALAYAS