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Weed Management in Pastures - 2007. Dr. Tim Murphy, Extension Weed Specialist The University of Georgia used with permission Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2007. Pasture Weed Issues. Lack of management - fertility, lime, mowing, overgrazing

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slide1
Weed Management in Pastures - 2007

Dr. Tim Murphy, Extension Weed Specialist

The University of Georgia

used with permission

Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

June 2007

pasture weed issues
Pasture Weed Issues
  • Lack of management - fertility, lime, mowing, overgrazing
  • Only 15% of Georgia pastures are sprayed on annual basis
  • Grazing restrictions
  • Legume tolerance
do i spray or fertilize first
Do I spray or fertilize first?
  • Spray first
  • Control existing weeds
  • Begin soil-test based lime and fertilizer program
  • Establish legumes after good weed control has been practiced for 1 to 2 years
fertility examples for the southeast
Fertility Examples for the Southeast
  • Broomsedge
    • General indicator of low pH (<5.4), low P and low K
    • Affected by grazing
  • Sericea lespedeza
    • Extremely tolerant of low pH,

P and K

  • Bahiagrass and Common Bermudagrass
    • More tolerant of low K than hybrid bermudagrass
    • Also more tolerant of close grazing
effect of grazing on weed control
Effect of Grazing on Weed Control
  • Grazing is SELECTIVE defoliation
  • Unlike mowing this may allow greater pressure to be placed on a single forage species
    • Shift competitive advantage toward favorable species
  • Can alter selectivity with animal species, stocking rate and timing
vegetation preferences
Vegetation Preferences

S. Forages 3rd Ed.

overgrazing
Overgrazing
  • Overgrazing decreases root CHO of forage species, compacts soil, injures crowns, and decreases rooting depth.
  • “Releases” unpalatable species like horsenettle
  • Ideally want to maintain a minimum forage height
    • Leaf area maintained - photosynthesis
    • Improves vigor and competitive advantage for desired species
    • Shades weed seedlings
  • 2-3” for bermudagrass in summer months
  • 3-4” for tall fescue
  • Heavily grazed hybrid bermudagrass can encourage common and bahiagrass encroachment
under grazing can also be a factor
Under grazing can also be a factor
  • Weeds can outgrow and shade forage species
positive attributes of weeds in pastures
Positive Attributes of “Weeds” in Pastures
  • Can dilute toxins in tall fescue during critical times
    • Chickweed, crabgrass, dallisgrass, lespedeza
  • Can extend grazing season and improve productivity
    • Crabgrass in tall fescue
  • Can improve quality
    • Crabgrass

Chickweed, curly dock, shepherds purse and tall fescue mixture. Eatonton GA

mowing
Mowing
  • Less effective than grazing
    • Largely cosmetic
    • Keeps forage in vegetative/competitive stage
  • Possible to decrease some annual weeds IF

mowed before viable seed formation

  • Some perennials are not affected by mowing
    • Horsenettle
  • Timing is important
    • Dogfennel, thistle?
when do you spray
When do you spray?
  • Winter annuals - henbit, chickweed, buttercups, thistles
    • November through March
  • Summer annuals - spiny amaranth, bitter sneezeweed
    • April through mid-July
  • Perennials
    • growth stage dependent
herbicide options
Herbicide Options
  • 2,4-D
  • dicamba (Vanquish, Banvel)
  • 2,4-D + dicamba (WeedMaster, others)
  • dicamba+ diflufenzopyr (Overdrive)
  • triclopyr (Remedy)
  • 2,4-D + triclopyr (CrossBow)
  • triclopyr + clopyralid (Redeem)
  • 2,4-D + picloram (Grazon P+D, GunSlinger)
  • fluroxypyr + picloram (Surmount)
  • fluroxypyr + triclopyr (PastureGard)
herbicide options cont
Herbicide Options (cont.)
  • aminopyralid (Milestone)
  • aminopyralid + 2,4-D (ForeFront)
  • diuron (Direx, Diuron)
  • metsulfuron (Cimarron)
  • metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron (Cimarron Plus)
  • metsulfuron + 2,4-D + dicamba (Cimarron MAX)
  • hexazinone (Velpar)
  • sulfosulfuron (Maverick) – Section 18 2006
  • tebuthiuron (Spike)
  • paraquat (Gramoxone Extra)
  • glyphosate (Roundup UltraMax)
  • imazapic (Plateau) (no longer an option)
remedy
Remedy
  • 4.0 lbs./gal. triclopyr ester
  • low volatility
  • Excellent on upright blackberry, numerous broadleaf weeds
  • Good on tropical soda apple
  • Fair on horsenettle
  • Poor on pokeweed, honeysuckle, trumpetcreeper
remedy19
Remedy
  • Mixes with diesel, basal oils
  • Remedy 20% + 80% diesel, excellent as basal application for trees < 4 inch DBH, and spot control of pricklypear cactus and palmetto
  • Injurious to clovers
  • Apply to seedling grasses 5 to 6 inches tall or after tiller development
remedy20
Remedy
  • Grazing and haying restrictions
  • Beef grazing - 0 d Dairy grazing - 14 d
    • Hay - 7 d (all livestock types, except lactating dairy cattle, next growing season)
    • Slaughter - 3 d
slide21
Basal Stem Spray
  • Stems should be less than 4 inches in diameter.
  • More effective on trees with smooth bark.
  • Can be done anytime. Easiest to do during the dormant season.

Mix: 80% diesel fuel or vegetable oil + 20% Remedy by volume.

slide23
Stump Treatment
  • Treat as soon as possible after cutting.
  • 80% diesel fuel + 20% Remedy
  • Remedy RTU is convenient, no mixing, low odor
slide24
Stump Treatment

Little stump, treat all

Big stump, treat perimeter

cimarron
Cimarron
  • 60DF metsulfuron
  • DuPont is phasing out Ally brand name for pastures
  • Effective for ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass, spiny amaranth, curly dock, buttercup, wild garlic control, blackberry
  • Poor horsenettle control
  • Injurious to legumes & ryegrass (4 mo plant back)
cimarron26
Cimarron
  • 0.1 to 0.3 oz. product per acre
  • Use low rates on tall fescue and timothy
  • Do not mix with liquid fert. for bahiagrass control
  • 0 d grazing or haying restriction - all livestock
cimarron plus
Cimarron Plus
  • Two-way product
  • 48% metsulfuron + 15% chlorsulfuron (63DF)
  • Effective for ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass, spiny amaranth, curly dock, buttercup, wild garlic control, blackberry, dewberry, honeysuckle
  • Poor horsenettle control
  • Injurious to legumes & ryegrass (4 mo plant back)
cimarron plus28
Cimarron Plus
  • 0.125 to 1.25 oz. product per acre
  • Use < 0.5 oz. product/acre on fescue
  • Do not mix with liquid fert. for bahiagrass control
  • 0 d grazing or haying restriction - all livestock
cimarron max
Cimarron MAX
  • Co-Pack product
  • Metsulfuron 60DF + 2,4-D amine (2.87 lbs./gal.) + dicamba (1.0 lb./gal.)
  • Increases number of broadleaf weeds controlled
  • Use rates 0.25 oz./acre of Cimarron plus 1.0 to 2.0 pts./acre of 2,4-D + dicamba
  • Add nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v
cimarron max30
Cimarron MAX
  • Grazing Restrictions
    • Lactating dairy animals – 7 days
    • Other livestock species – 0 days
  • Haying Restrictions
    • All livestock – 37 days
grazon p d gunslinger
Grazon P+D, GunSlinger
  • 2.0 lbs./gal. 2,4-D amine + 0.54 lbs./gal. picloram amine
  • Excellent control of broadleaf weeds
  • Excellent on horsenettle and tropical soda apple
  • For horsenettle, use 3 pts./acre at early bloom.
  • About 30 d residual control
  • Fair control of blackberry
grazon p d gunslinger32
Grazon P+D, GunSlinger
  • Injurious to clovers
  • Apply to seedling grasses or overseeded small grains at tiller growth stage, 1.5 pts./acre or less
  • Newly-sprigged bermuda – 1.5 pts./acre, delay until stolons are 6 inches long
  • Beef grazing - 0 d Dairy grazing - 7 d
    • Hay - 30 d (all livestock types)
    • Slaughter - 3 d
reseeding restrictions grazon p d
Reseeding Restrictions – Grazon P+D
  • Cool-season grasses - 21 days
  • Clover - 2 pts./acre or less
    • Fall-seeding permitted if Grazon P+D applied no later than June (4 month plant back)
  • Clover – 2 to 3 pts./acre
    • Spring (Feb. – Mar.) seeding permitted the following spring for applications made no later than Sept. 15 the previous year.
grazon p d gunslinger good but
Grazon P+D & GunSlinger - Good - BUT!!!!!
  • Do not
    • use hay from treated areas for compost or mulch
    • transfer livestock to untreated areas without 7 d cleanout
    • use manure for fertilizing broadleaf crops
    • use in any temporary forage system involving broadleaf crops
  • USE ONLY ON PERMANENT GRASS FORAGE SYSTEMS
plateau
Plateau
  • BASF will no longer market to private landowners
  • grass roadsides, wildflowers, noncropland sites
  • WHY???
    • Economics
    • Low sales,objections to injury
    • Can make more money in other markets
newly sprigged bermuda
Newly-sprigged Bermuda
  • Direx 4L, Diuron 4L
  • Karmex is not labeled for this use
  • Plant sprigs 2 inches deep
  • Apply immediately after sprigging
  • Use 3.0 to 4.0 pts./acre
  • Not labeled in established bermudagrass
  • Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds
  • 70 day grazing restriction
newest herbicides
Newest Herbicides
  • PastureGard - fluroxypyr + triclopyr (Remedy)
    • controls annual, perennial, & woody species; enhanced control of blackberry
  • Surmount – fluroxypyr + picloram
    • controls annual, perennial, & woody species
  • Milestone – aminopyralid
  • ForeFront – aminopyralid + 2,4-D
  • Maverick - sulfosulfuron
pasturegard
PastureGard
  • 1.5 lbs./gal. triclopyr ester + 0.5 lbs./gal. fluroxypyr ester
  • Controls numerous brush species and broadleaf weeds.
    • Upright blackberry, sweet gums, Sericea lespedeza, dogfennel, gallberry, rose species, lantana
    • Palmetto and yucca – use 2.0% v/v solution in water
    • Fair control of horsenettle and tropical soda apple
    • Also has activity on maypop passionflower
pasturegard39
PastureGard
  • Mixes with diesel and other oil carriers
  • PastureGard 50% + 50% diesel, excellent as basal application for trees < 4 inch DBH
  • Injurious to clovers
  • Apply to seedling grasses after tiller development
pasturegard40
PastureGard
  • Beef and other livestock grazing - 0 d
  • Dairy grazing – not permitted during the growing season of application
  • Hay – 14 d (all livestock types)
reseeding restrictions pasturegard
Reseeding Restrictions – PastureGard
  • Cool-season grasses and small grains - 21 days
  • Clover and other legumes – 30 days
  • Other crops – 120 days
  • Labeled for use on permanent grass forage systems
    • This includes permanent pastures that are overseeded with winter forages.
surmount
Surmount
  • 1.19 lbs./gal. picloram amine + 0.96 lbs. gal. fluroxypyr amine
  • Controls broadleaf weeds, horsenettle, tropical soda apple, and pricklypear cactus.
  • Apply 3 to 4.0 pts./acre for prickly pear cactus in fall months, control is very slow, about 2 yrs.
  • About 30 d residual control
  • Excellent control of upright-growing blackberry (3 to 4 pts./acre)
surmount43
Surmount
  • Injurious to clovers
  • Apply to seedling grasses or overseeded small grains at tiller growth stage
  • Newly-sprigged bermuda –delay until stolons are 6 inches long
  • Beef grazing - 0 d; slaughter 3 d
  • Lactating Dairy Animals – grazing 14 d; silage 14 d.
  • Hay – 7 d (all livestock types)
reseeding restrictions surmount
Reseeding Restrictions – Surmount
  • Cool-season grasses - 21 days
  • Clovers – 12 months
  • Other legumes – 12 months
surmount it s good but
Surmount- It’s Good - BUT!!!!!
  • Do not
    • use hay from treated areas for compost or mulch
    • transfer livestock to untreated areas without 7 d cleanout
    • use manure for fertilizing broadleaf crops
    • use in any temporary forage system involving broadleaf crops
  • USE ONLY ON PERMANENT GRASS FORAGE SYSTEMS
milestone
Milestone
  • 2.0 lbs./gal. aminopyralid
  • Use rate: 4.0 to 7.0 fl. ozs./acre
  • Numerous broadleaf weeds – thistles, horsenettle, buttercup
  • Do not seed legumes year of application (additional research being conducted)
  • Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves.
milestone47
Milestone
  • Non-volatile
  • Injurious to legumes
  • No grazing or hay restriction for any type of livestock
  • Weak on sida species, dogfennel, plantains, blackberry, wild radish, other mustards.
  • Add 2,4-D or Remedy for weeds above.
forefront
ForeFront
  • 0.33 lbs./gal. aminopyralid + 2.67 lbs./gal 2,4-D
  • Use rate: 1.5 to 2.6 pts./acre
  • Numerous broadleaf weeds – thistles, horsenettle, buttercup, henbit, plantains, verbena
  • Do not seed legumes year of application (additional research being conducted)
  • Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves.
forefront49
ForeFront
  • Injurious to legumes
  • No grazing restriction for any type of livestock.
  • 7 day hay harvest restriction
  • Better control of plantains and common pokeweed than Milestone
maverick monsanto
Maverick - Monsanto
  • Sulfosulfuron, 75WDG
  • Section 18 in GA, AL, MS, AR, OK, LA APPROVED FOR 2007
  • Controls johnsongrass and sedges in bermudagrass and bahiagrass
  • Use rate – 1.33 ozs./acre
  • Add a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v.
maverick monsanto53
Maverick - Monsanto
  • Johnsongrass 18 to 24 inches tall, up to seedhead stage of growth
  • Nutsedges – 4 to 8 inches tall
  • Does not control annual grasses, vaseygrass, dallisgrass, smutgrass, etc.
  • Tank-mix with other herbicides for broadleaf weed control
maverick monsanto54
Maverick - Monsanto
  • Grazing and haying restriction
    • 14 days – all livestock types
  • Treated fields may be rotated only to wheat.
  • Injurious to clovers.
winter forages
Winter Forages
  • Annual ryegrass
  • Wheat
  • Oats
  • Rye
when do you spray56
When do you spray?
  • Winter annuals - henbit, chickweed, buttercups, thistles, wild radish (turnips)
    • November through March
  • Grass and Small Grain Forages
    • Delay application until the 4 to 5 leaf growth stage
tolerance of 2 to 4 leaf wheat to herbicides
Tolerance of 2- to 4-Leaf Wheat to Herbicides
  • 2,4-D (1 and 2 pt. rates)
  • Weedmaster (1, 2 and 4 pt. rates)
  • Grazon P+D (1, 2 and 4 pt. rates)
  • Sprayed in mid-December
  • 2- to 4-leaf wheat
herbicide options for winter grass forages
Herbicide Options for Winter Grass Forages
  • 2,4-D
  • dicamba (Vanquish, Banvel)
  • 2,4-D + dicamba (WeedMaster)
  • triclopyr (Remedy)
  • 2,4-D + picloram (Grazon P+D, GunSlinger)
  • fluroxypyr + picloram (Surmount)
  • fluroxypyr + triclopyr (Pasturegard)
  • aminopyralid (Milestone)
2 4 d
2,4-D
  • Amines and esters
  • Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves
    • For grain production delay appl. until fully tillered
  • Use up to 2.0 pts./acre, except on oats use 1.0 pt./acre
  • Weak on chickweed and henbit
  • Good on buttercup, wild radish and other mustards
2 4 d61
2,4-D
  • Grazing and haying restrictions varies by product
  • Weedar 64
    • Beef cattle – 0 days
    • Lactating dairy animals – 7 days
    • Hay – all types – 30 days
weedmaster
WeedMaster
  • 2.87 lbs. 2,4-D + 1.0 lb. dicamba per gallon
  • Delay application until grasses have 4 to 5 leaves
  • Use up to 2.0 pts./acre, except on oats use 1.0 pt./acre
  • Better than 2,4-D on chickweed and henbit
  • Grazing restrictions: only lactating dairy cows – 7 days
  • Hay/silage: 37 days, all livestock types
summary forage weed control
Summary - Forage Weed Control
  • Know cropping system
  • Use approved cultural practices
  • Identify weeds
  • Select product
  • Follow grazing and haying restrictions
  • Proper application timing
summary
Summary

Poor fertility and overgrazing are huge contributors to weed problems

Long term solutions will have to address these issues

Improving fertility and grazing management of mediocre stands may revive them

Process likely slow vs herbicides

Mowing can help

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