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Lessons of History. U.S. Transitions in Cuba and the Philippines. Mr. Lou DiMarco Department of Military History U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Cuban Stability Operations 1898-1902. End State: Independent Cuba or Annexation? Means: Military Government Ways:

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Lessons of History

U.S. Transitions in Cuba and the Philippines

Mr. Lou DiMarco

Department of Military History

U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

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Cuban Stability Operations 1898-1902

  • End State: Independent Cuba or Annexation?

  • Means: Military Government

  • Ways:

    • Occupation 1899

    • Gen Brooke Governorship

    • Gen Wood Governorship

    • Economic Obstacles

    • Constitution and the Platt Amendment 1901

    • Independence 1902

Failure and Reoccupation 1906

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Example of Stability Lines of Effort

US Army FM 3-07 (2008)


Establish Civil Security

Safe / Secure Environment

Support to Governance

Established Rule of Law

Restore Essential Services

Social Well-Being

Establish Civil Control

Stable Democracy

Support to Economic/ Infrastructure Dev

Sustainable Economy

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Cuban Stability Operations 1898-1902

National Rural Guard Established

Provincial / Municipal Police Forces

Demobilize Cuban Insurrection Army

Occupation Forces Arrive

Establish Civil Security

General Leonard Wood Military Governor

Suffrage Guidance

Provincial Mil Governors

Platt Amendment

Support to Governance

General Robert Brooke Mil Governor

Establish Control of Revenue Service

Judicial Reform

Prov. Governors Stand-down

Yellow Fever Board

Restore Essential Services

Renovate Telegraph Sys

Postal Service Est.

National Elections

National Sanitation Program

National Census Conducted

Constitutional Assembly

Establish Civil Control

Indigenous Government Cabinet Est.

Railroad Funding Approved

1st Provincial Elections

2d Provincial Elections

Transition From Mil Gov to President

Support to Economic/ Infrastructure Dev

Teacher Training Program

Harbor Dredging / Light Houses

Forincker Amendment

Road Construction / Public Works

Schools Built

Failure to Achieve Trade Agreement





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Philippine Stability Operations 1898-1946

  • End State: Annexation…

    • U.S. Territory?

    • Statehood?

    • Independence?

  • Means: Civil Administration / Military Occupation

  • Ways:

    • Conventional War 1899-1900

    • Insurgent War 1901-1902 (police and military forces)

    • Military Governor 1899-1901

    • Civil Governor beginning 1901

    • Moro Insurgency 1900 - 1906

    • Civil Government 1907,1917, 1935

    • Commonwealth Established 1935

    • Independence 1946

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Philippine Stability Operations 1898-1946

U.S. Occupation Forces Arrive

War Betw U.S. and Filipino Forces

Philippine Army formed 1936

Japanese Occupation Independence

Admiral Dewey Victory

Philippine Constabulary Established

Filipino Cdr Appt

Insurrection Ends

Establish Civil Security

Aquinaldo Captured

General Amnesty

Constabulary School Est

GovTaft 1901

99 Year U.S. Basing

Gov. Wright Appointed 1904

Support to Governance

Senate Annexes Philippines

Last US Gov

Tydings-McDuffie Act

Philippine Com. Legislature

Judicial Reform

New Organic Law

Restore Essential Services

Aquinald Declares Independence

Presidential Elections

Commonwealth Reestablished

Lower House Elected


Commonwealth Established

Senate Elected


Establish Civil Control

Independence Promised

Parity Amendment to Const. 1947

Constitution Approved

Support to Economic/ Infrastructure Dev

Education Reform

English Official Lang

Monetary Reform


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Early Twentieth Century Occupation OperationsDominating Issues

Domestic U.S. politics and policy

Civil Administration versus Military Administration

The Influence of Insurgency

Importance of Economics

Importance of Culture

Timelines (slow versus long)